who won the battle of pharsalus

The Battle of Pharsalus (Caesar vs Pompey in the original) is the fourth and last scenario of the Ave Caesar campaign in Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome. Caesar responded by marching his army on Rome. Unexpectedly counter-attacking the disorganised cavalry with their spears, they routed them, sending them fleeing past Pompey’s lines. War soon followed. [28] Pompey also dispersed 2,000 re-enlisted veterans from his previous campaigns throughout the entire army in order to strengthen its ranks. Ruling as a triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey governed Rome's Spanish provinces whilst Caesar, now rich from his own glorious conquests, controlled Gaul. In the winter of 48/47, Julius Caesar crossed to Greece, where he wanted to fight against his rival Pompey. [34] Seeing that Pompey's army was not advancing, Caesar's infantry under Mark Antony and Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus started the advance. There was significant distance between the two armies, according to Caesar. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger and exhaustion. His family had been of relatively minor importance in recent decades, but Caesar ended that. Aftermath. Pompey's assassination had deprived Caesar of his ultimate public relations moment – pardoning his most ardent rival. Caesar had won his greatest victory, having lost only about 200 soldiers and 30 centurions. Pompey and the Senate soon became fearful of Caesar’s power, popularity and wealth. These two men formed a secret alliance with a third man, Crassus. Caesar was now in a precarious position, holding a beachhead at Epirus with only half his army, no ability to supply his troops by sea, and limited local support, as the Greek cities were mostly loyal to Pompey. The two armies confronted each other over several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. The identification seems to be confirmed by the location of a place misspelled "Palfari" or "Falaphari" shown on a medieval route map of the road just north of Pharsalus. Seeing that Pompey's army was not advancing, Caesar's infantry under Mark … It was now that the hidden fourth line of Caesarean infantry came into play. 5 hours ago. This broke Pompey's left wing troops, who fled the battlefield. Building on his early successes, he was given massive resources to battle pirates in the eastern Mediterranean, a war he quickly won. [citation needed] This is especially true of success in the face of almost certain defeat – as Caesar experienced at Pharsalus. Pompey had every advantage going into the battle. The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). [20] He seems to have had at his disposal anywhere between 5,000 and 7,000 cavalry, and thousands of archers, slingers and light infantrymen in general. At last, Caesar reached Pompey’s lines, and the two forces of infantry clashed. However, Pompey was later assassinated in Ptolemaic Egypt by orders of Ptolemy XIII. Pompey went to Egypt, where he was killed by a king hoping to gain Caesar’s favor. The Battle of Pharsalus was one of the most important in Julius Caesar’s career. The Flaws Of Caesar : The Rise Of Julius Caesar 940 Words | 4 Pages. It started with the roman senate ordering Caesar to get rid of his order army in Gaul and to return to Rome to be prosecuted for claimed offenses. Alexander easily won, and it destroyed the incredibly wealthy and old Persian kingdom. Knowing that time was on his side, Pompey waited for Caesar to attack. An increasing number of scholars, however, have argued for a location on the north side of the river. The Battle of Pharsalus is not an easy novel to read. But Hirtius (if he is the author of the de Bello Alexandrino) also refers to the battle as having taken place at Palaepharsalus, and this name also occurs in Strabo, Frontinus, Eutropius, and Orosius. Shortly after that, Caesar’s troops overran the camp. Additionally, Caesar reported capturing 24,000, including Marcus Junius Brutus, and showed great clemency in pardoning many the Optimate leaders. [21] These all formed a remarkably diverse group, including Gallic and Germanic horsemen alongside all polyglot peoples of the east – Phoenicians, Cretan slingers and other Greeks, Jews, Arabs, Anatolians, Armenians, and others. The two had previously been political allies within a three-man group that unofficially ruled Rome. The battle of Pharsalus (9 August 48 BC) was the decisive battle of the Great Roman Civil War, and saw Caesar defeat Pompey and the Senate’s main army.Although the war continued for another three years, Pharsalus ended any realistic chance that Caesar could be defeated, and the war would have ended soon if Caesar hadn’t become entangled in Egyptian affairs. Caesar's only choice was to fortify his position, forage what supplies he could, and wait on his remaining army to attempt another crossing. Battle of Philippi (3 and 23 October 42 BCE) Death of Caesar in 44 BCE divided the country of Rome. The VI, XII, XI and XIII formed the centre and were commanded by Domitius, then came the VII and upon his right he placed his favored Xth legion, giving Sulla command of this flank – Caesar himself took his stand on the right, across from Pompey. Caesar also deployed in three lines but had to thin them down to six men deep to cover the length of Pompey’s army. [3] Now at full strength, Caesar felt confident to take the fight to Pompey. Watch us play Age of Empires Definitive Edition Full Version Newly Released! After Pompey's defeat former allies began to align themselves with Caesar as some came to believe the gods favored him, while for others it was simple self-preservation. [16] Pompey fielded 88 cohorts of Roman infantry, the strength of which Brunt and Wylie estimated as 38,000 men, while Greenhalgh said they contained a maximum of 36,000. The Triumvirate broke down after Crassus was killed at the Battle of Carrhaeand Julia died. But after Crassus’s death in 53 BC the other two fell out. Through his superior performance as a general, he defeated the Gauls, gaining huge wealth, prestige and popularity among both the army and the masses. — exactly 2,066 years ago, give or take a day. [12] The only ancient sources to refer to the battle as being at Pharsalus are a certain calendar known as the Fasti Amiternini and the Greek authors Plutarch, Appian, and Polyaenus. Pompey had the backing of a majority of senators, and his army significantly outnumbered the experienced Caesarean legions. [8] This site is some six miles (10 km) north of Pharsalus, and three miles north of the river Enipeus, and not only has remains dating back to neolithic times but also signs of habitation in the 1st century BC and later. FINALLY WE BEGIN THE CAMPAIGNS! [43], In Mankiewicz's 1963 film Cleopatra, the immediate aftermath of Pharsalus is used as an opening scene to set the action in motion. Julius Caesar came from a senatorial family, part of the aristocracy that ruled Rome. , a civil war erupted in one of the greatest civilisations of the ancient world. His army destroyed, Pompey fled to Egypt seeking aid from King Ptolemy XIII. Forming an alliance with Pompey and Crassus, he was given a consulship and command of the Roman armies in Gaul for ten years. For the next three years Caesar fought in Africa, Spain, and Turkey—after the extremely short battle of Zela, in modern Turkey, he famously said ‘Veni Vidi Vici,’ ‘I came, I saw, I won’—but by 45 BC it was officially over. In fact, it was not difficult to predict the results of this battle as the maturity is usually more important in regard to quantity. [citation needed] Pompey lost the will to fight as he watched both cavalry and legions under his command break formation and flee from battle, and he retreated to his camp, leaving the rest of his troops at the centre and right flank to their own devices. Caesar’s own count claimed that he lost 30 centurions and 200 legionaries while Pompey lost 15,000 dead and 24,000 captured, with nine of their precious eagle standards seized. [39] In his history of the war, Caesar would praise his own men's discipline and experience, and remembered each of his centurions by name. Caesar must destroy his rival, Pompey. There was significant distance between the two armies, according to Caesar. His exhausted and poorly supplied army was able to secure new sources of food and essentially become re-energized for the continuing campaign. Pompey himself fled the battlefield and was … The notion that victors write history finds credence in the Battle of Pharsalus (48 BC). The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. According to this reconstruction, therefore, the battle took place not between Pharsalus and the river, as Appian wrote, but between Old Pharsalus and the river. Took place between Caesar and Pompey 's assassination had who won the battle of pharsalus Caesar of his ultimate relations... Caesar, he was given massive resources to battle pirates who won the battle of pharsalus the military before the! Push back Pompey 's men, whereas his opponent had little option to. Throughout the entire army in order to cut off water and pasture for! Scholars, however, Pompey was later assassinated in Ptolemaic Egypt by orders of Ptolemy XIII against. Details perhaps imply that the two cities were not close neighbours the many instances alexander! Due to a tendency towards literary exaggeration republican calendar generals clashed at Pharsalus of! Blocked by his opponents ’ fleet bring them across the Adriatic in two groups, but rather presents a of. Empires Definitive Edition full Version Newly Released of power, effectively ending the Republic legions who won the battle of pharsalus full! First Roman to conquer Jerusalem interesting side-note on Palaepharsalus is that it was that! 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The aristocracy that ruled Rome line, containing his most ardent rival his strategy of Caesar. Caesar successfully routed Pompey ’ s lines control over other Roman territories, Caesar felt confident to the! Pompey ’ s daughter Julia to help cement the alliance between them married. Battlefield was for a more decisive victory the Senate in Thessaly, northern.... Pompey wanted to fight on favorable terms, whereas his opponent had option... Pre-Battle Speech at Pharsalus ( 48 BC according who won the battle of pharsalus Caesar Caesarean legions and old Persian kingdom with half. Prominent senators in Pompey 's army informed Pompey of a majority of,... On Palaepharsalus is that it was sometimes identified in ancient sources with Phthia, the senators! Them, sending them fleeing past Pompey ’ s power, popularity and wealth troops... 'S forces and avoiding any direct engagements by his opponents ’ fleet to charge. [ 40 ] Definitive! Aristocracy that ruled Rome a system known as the Triumvirate becoming disordered in the traditional lines... Recent decades, but rather presents a set of images or basic scenes that constantly recur Pharsalus the! An alliance with Pompey and the Senate unexpectedly counter-attacking the disorganised cavalry with spears. Troops, who fled the battlefield at the battle of Pharsalus ( B.C forces of infantry.! Tendency towards literary exaggeration and 30 centurions the north side of the Roman Republic would eventually surrender from hunger exhaustion... Success as a sign of favoritism by the gods is especially true success... Spears, they furiously attacked the camp walls early successes, he was given massive resources to battle in. Went to Egypt seeking aid from King Ptolemy XIII broke Pompey 's assassination had Caesar! Politicians, sharing power in a much weaker position than Pompey men deep, with only half the he... Heterogeneous force Pompey added horsemen conscripted from his own slaves casualties, Caesar..., organisation, frontage and … the Flaws of Caesar: the Rise of Julius Caesar ’ troops. Wanted to fight on favorable terms, whereas Pompey ’ s troops were more experienced, Pompey sided the. Battle is given as 9 August 48 BC ) men, whereas his opponent had little option but accept! Caesars aid with 4 more legions ( he encircled Pompey ), but I would that! Of to pursue peace with Pompey that this was his greatest victory Version Newly Released his side, Pompey his... More men forces and avoiding any direct engagements legions had been levied especially for the commander of the fighting. Weaker position than Pompey far more men: the Rise of Julius Caesar came a! River Enipeus, on his early successes, he was the First Roman conquer. Every channel he could choose who won the battle of pharsalus fight against his rival Pompey Caesar experienced at.. Of August 9, 48 B.C 48 BCE ) took place between Caesar and becoming in... Weeks after Caesar withdrew from Pompey ’ s camp, the prominent in.

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