, Admired by his contemporaries on the avant-garde scene, Marcel Janco is mentioned or portrayed in several works by Romanian authors. Marcel Janco was one of the founders of the Dada movement in 1916 a major art movement of the 20th century. On the other hand, in Israel Marcel Janco is best known as the 'father' of the artists' colony of Ein Hod [...] and for his pedagogic achievements in the young Jewish state.  Some 20 of his Bucharest structures were still standing twenty years later, but the lack of a renovation program and the shortages of late communism brought steady decay.  By then, Janco is said to have been concerned about the overall benefits of Jewish relocation into an Arab village. " He ridiculed, like Ion Vinea before him, the substance of Romania's academic traditionalism, notably in a provocative drawing which showed a grazing donkey under the title "Tradition". He settled in Tel-Aviv and taught painting. He worked in many art forms, including illustration, sculpture and oil painting.  As noted in 2007 by Romanian literary historian Paul Cernat: "All the efforts by Ion Vinea to reunite them [...] would be in vain.  His own architectural work was entirely dedicated to functionalism: in his words, the purpose of architecture was a "harmony of forms", with designs as simplified as to resemble crystals.  Some researchers have attributed the change exclusively to the painter's growing say in editorial policy.  Like some of his Contimporanul colleagues, he was by then collaborating with Cuvântul Liber, the self-styled "moderate left-wing review" and with Isac Ludo's modernist magazine, Adam. " Historian Hubert F. van der Berg also notes that the socialist ideal of "a new life", implicitly adopted by Janco, was a natural peacetime development of Dada's discourse about "the new man". Sandqvist, p.37, 40, 90, 253, 332. A absolvit în 1917 Academia de ArhitecturÄ din Zurich. , By that time, the Janco family was faced with the rise of antisemitism, and alarmed by the growth of fascist movements such as the Iron Guard. Marcel Janco, an early abstract painter and a founder of the Dada movement in Switzerland in 1916, died Saturday in the Sheba Medical Center in Tel Hashomer. It is thought the studios for his Birou were on the top floor, and the design was published in Contimporanul in 1932.  This period also witnessed the start of a friendly relationship between Janco and the Expressionist artists who published in Herwarth Walden's magazine Der Sturm. , Some time in the late 1920s, Janco set up an architectural studio Birou de Studii Moderne (Office of Modern Studies), a partnership with his brother Jules (Iulius), a venture often identified by the name Marcel Iuliu Iancu, combining the two brothers as one. Targeted by antisemitic persecution before and during World War II, he emigrated to British Palestine in 1941. Career Highlights.  He was however honored with a special issue of Secolul 20 literary magazine, in 1979, and interviewed for Tribuna and Luceafărul journals (1981, 1984). In 1915 he began his architecture studies in Zurich where he met his future friends, the artist Jan Arp and poet Tristan Tzara.  He was soon recognized as a leading presence in the artist community, receiving Tel Aviv Municipality's Dizengoff Prize in 1945, and again in 1946. His portraits of the writers included, drawn in sharply modernist style, were received with amusement by the traditionalist public. , As a group, the students were under the influence of Romanian Symbolist clubs, which were at the time the more radical expressions of artistic rejuvenation in Romania. Janco was a practitioner of Art Nouveau, Futurism and Expressionism before contributing his painting and stage design to Tzara's literary Dadaism. Facts about Art Deco 10: the theater. Marcel Janco was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist.  Janco was also called upon by authors Ion Pillat and Perpessicius to illustrate their Antologia poeților de azi ("The Anthology of Present-Day Poets"). Deco Japan. These shows include On the Edge (Yad Vashem, 1990) and Destine la răscruce ("Destinies at Crossroads", MNAR, 2011). The group was mostly a venue Romania's intellectual youth, interested in redefining the national specificity around modernist values, but also offered a venue for dialogue between the far right and the far left.  He met with folklorist and former political prisoner Harry Brauner, poet Ștefan Iureș, painter Matilda Ulmu and art historian Geo Șerban.  Another immediate source of inspiration for his attitude on life was provided by Futurism, an anti-establishment movement created in Italy by poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and his artists' circle.  The Iancus moved from Decebal to Gândului Street, and then to Trinității, where they built one of the largest home-and-garden complexes in early 20th century Bucharest. Dalia Manor, "From Rejection to Recognition: Israeli Art and the Holocaust", in Dan Urian.  The artist remarried to Clara "Medi" Goldschlager, the sister of his old friend Jacques G. Costin.  The Expressionist transfiguration of shapes was especially noted in his drawings of Mateiu Caragiale and Stephan Roll, created from harsh and seemingly spontaneous lines. " Functionalism was further illustrated by Janco's ideas on furniture design, where he favored "small heights", "simple aesthetics", as well as "a maximum of comfort" which would "pay no tribute to richness". Van der Berg, p.147-148.  In 1936, some works by Janco, Maxy and Petrașcu represented Romania at the Futurist art show in New York City.  He was a major contributor to the cabaret's events: he notably carved the grotesque masks worn by performers on stilts, gave "hissing concerts" and, in unison with Huelsenbeck and Tzara, improvised some of the first (and mostly onomatopoeic) "simultaneous poems" to be read on stage.  His studio was home to other Jewish Romanian emigrants fleeing communism, including female artist Liana Saxone-Horodi.  He was also involved in preparing the magazine's theatrical parties, including the 1925 production of A Merry Death, by Nikolai Evreinov; Janco was the set and costume designer, and Eliad the director.  These landmarks, like other modernist assets, became treasured real estate: in 1996, a Janco house was valued at 500,000 United States dollars. , Although Contimporanul went bankrupt, an artistic faction of the same name survived until 1936.  The matter of Janco's own debt to his country's peasant art is more controversial.  With clandestine assistance from England, Marcel, Medi and their two daughters left Romania through Constanța harbor, and arrived in Turkey on February 4, 1941. In the midst of second World War in 1941 he succeeded to reach Israel. The paintings of Marcel Janco is also very beautiful. His brothers were Iuliu (Jules) and George. " A third major source for Janco's imagery was Expressionism, initially coming to him from both Die Brücke artists and Oskar Kokoschka, and later reactivated by his contacts at Der Sturm. A trăi istoria, a face istorie", "Art in Israel, 1948-2008: A Partial Panorama", Middle East Review of International Affairs, "Marcel Ianco (Jancu) într-o nouă prezentare", "Israeli Art & Judaica to Make First Appearance in Sale at Bonhams in London", "Bucharest Rediscovers Houses by a Modernist", "Israeli & International Art Sale To Be Held at Sotheby's New York", "Bienala Bucureștiului.  In 1931 he designed his first tenement/apartment building at Strada Caimatei 20, a small stack of 3 apartments of boldly projecting forms, developed himself for his family with other floors to rent, in the name of his wife Clara Janco.  Its hectic atmosphere would inspire Janco to create an eponymous oil painting, dated 1916 and believed to have been lost. He won the Dizengoff Prize and Israel Prize, and was a founder of Ein Hod, a utopian art colony, controversially built over a deserted Palestinian Arab settlement. , Soon after making his comeback, Marcel Janco reconnected himself with the local avant-garde salons, and had his first Romanian exhibits, at the Maison d'Art club in Bucharest. 100 Years On, Why Dada Still Matters.  The design was quite unlike anything seen in Bucharest before, the front facade composed of complex overlapping, projecting and receding rectangular volumes, horizontal and corner windows, three circular porthole windows, and stepped flat roof areas including a rooftop lookout. Marcel Janco (1895-1984) was born in 1895 in Bucharest. He was 89 years old. framed to 22.5 X 25 inches. " These developments created a definitive split in Romania's avant-garde movement, and contributed to Contimporanul's eventual fall: the Surrealists and socialists at unu condemned Vinea and the rest for having established, through Marinetti, a connection with the Italian fascists. A major breakthrough was his Villa for Jean Fuchs, built in 1927 on Negustori Street. Sandqvist, p.95-97, 190, 264, 342-343; Van der Berg, p.139, 145-147.  The house is especially known for hosting Clara Haskil during one of her triumphant returns to Romania. ÎncÄ din anii liceului scoate împreunÄ cu Tristan Tzara Åi Ion Vinea revista âSimbolâ(1912).  Janco was also largely responsible for the Contimporanul issue on Surrealism, which included his interviews with writers such as Joseph Delteil, and his inquiry about the publisher Simon Krà.  His experiment on Trinității Street, with its angular pattern and multicolored facade, has been rated one of the most spectacular samples of Romanian modernism, while the buildings he designed later came with Art Deco elements, including the "ocean liner"-type balconies.  That objection to Janco's work, and to Contimporanul in general, was also taken up in 1926 by the anti-modernist essayist I. E.  The actual birth of "Dadaism", at an unknown date, later formed the basis of disputes between Tzara, Ball, and Huelsenbeck.  In particular, Janco was an early influence on three Zionist artists who had arrived to Palestine from other regions: Avigdor Stematsky, Yehezkel Streichman and Joseph Zaritsky.  His artwork was again on show in New York City for a 1950 retrospective.  An unusual echo of the exhibit came in 1925, when Contimporanul published a photograph of Brâncuși's Princess X sculpture. " As he recalled, these works were not well received in the post-war Zionist community, because they evoked painful memories in a general mood of optimism; as a result, Janco decided to change his palette and tackle subjects which related exclusively to his new country. The earliest works by Janco show the influence of Iosif Iser, adopting the visual trappings of Postimpressionism and illustrating, for the first time in Janco's career, the interest in modern composition techniques; Liana Saxone-Horodi believes that Iser's manner is most evident in Janco's 1911 work, Self-portrait with Hat, preserved at the Janco-Dada Museum.  With help from Segal and others, Marcel Janco was personally involved in decorating the Cabaret Voltaire.  In part, Janco's post-Dadaism responded to the socialist ideals of Constructivism.  Janco was soon reconciled with his parents, and, although still unlicensed as an architect, began receiving his first commissions, some of which came from within his own family.  Anthropologist Susan Slyomovics argues that the Ein Hod project as a whole was an alternative to the standard practice of Zionist colonization, since, instead of creating new buildings in the ancient scenery, it showed attempts to cultivate the existing Arab-style masonry.  The Străulești Abattoir murders and the stories of Jewish survivors also inspired several of Janco's drawings. "Discourses on the pre-1948 Palestinian Village: The Case of Ein Hod/Ein Houd", in Annelies Moors, Toine van Teeffelen.  As a result of his intervention, in 1949 the area of Old Jaffa was turned into an artist-friendly community. " The ideological shift, he recalled, destroyed his relationships with the Contimporanul poet Ion Barbu, who reportedly concluded, after admiring a 1936 exhibit: "Too bad you're a kike!  His subsequent preoccupations were linked to the Jewish tradition of interpreting symbols, and he reportedly told scholar Moshe Idel: "I paint in Kabbalah". During his life, Janco exhibited in many important exhibitions around the world. He parted with Dada in 1919, when he and painter Hans Arp founded a Constructivist circle, Das Neue Leben. His more important teachers there, Sandqvist observes, were sculptor Johann Jakob Graf and architect Karl Moser—the latter in particular, for his ideas on the architectural Gesamtkunstwerk.  However, by 1923, the journal became increasingly cultural and artistic in its revolt, headlining with translations from van Doesburg and Breton, publishing Vinea's own homage to Futurism, and featuring illustrations and international notices which Janco may have handpicked himself.  Around 1913, Janco was in more direct contact with the French sources of Iser's Postimpressionism, having by then discovered on his own the work of André Derain. Janco was one of the leading Romanian Jewish intellectuals of his generation.  However, his parallel work in costume design evidenced a toning down of avant-garde tendencies (to the displeasure of his colleagues at Integral magazine), and a growing preoccupation with commedia dell'arte.  During the interval, Janco found other backers in the specialized art and architecture magazines, such as Orașul, Arta și Orașul, Rampa, Ziarul Științelor și al Călătoriilor.  His other studies, in collage and relief, have been described by reviewers as "a personal synthesis which is identifiable as his own to this day", and ranked among "the most courageous and original experiments in abstract art.  The Villa Bordeanu (1930) on Labirint Street plays with symmetrical formality while the Villa Paul Iluta (1931, altered) employs bold rectangular volumes over three floors, as does the Paul Wexler Villa (1931), on Silvestru and Grigore Mora streets.  His architectural legacy was affected by the large-scale demolition program of the 1980s. They eventually expanded their new aesthetic, based on a combination of Cubism and Expressionism, to three-dimensional works and then a kind of early performance art. , His assimilation of Expressionism has led scholar John Willett to discuss Dadaism as visually an Expressionist sub-current, and, in retrospect, Janco himself claimed that Dada was not as much a fully-fledged new artistic style as "a force coming from the physical instincts", directed against "everything cheap". He won the Dizengoff Prize and Israel Prize, and was a founder of Ein Hod, a utopian art colony. Sell art from your collection. ), Pop, "Un 'misionar al artei noi' (II)", p.11; Sandqvist, p.248, Pop, "Un 'misionar al artei noi' (II)", p.10-11. See also Cernat, Pop, "Un 'misionar al artei noi' (I)", p.9. In a nutshell, Erich Mendelsohn and Wirt C. Rowland are the artists of Art deco whose paintings are used commercially. " At around that time, pianist and fascist sympathizer Cella Delavrancea also assessed that Janco's contribution to theater was the prime example of "Jewish" and "bastard" art. , As a Dada, Janco was interested in the raw and primitive art, generated by "the instinctive power of creation", and he credited Paul Klee with having helped him "interpret the soul of primitive man". History and Urban Planning").  Topîrceanu's claim is contradicted by literary historian Barbu Cioculescu, who finds the Antologia drawings: "exquisitely synthetic—some of them masterpieces; take it from someone who has seen from up close many of the writers portrayed". , After the Simbolul moment, Marcel Janco worked at Seara daily, where he took further training in draftsmanship. , Together with Romanian Cubist painter M. H. Maxy, Janco was personally involved in curating the Contimporanul International Art Exhibit of 1924. The Solly Gold apartments on a corner on Hristo Botev Avenue (1934) is his best known smaller block, with interlocking angular volumes and balconies on all five sides visible, a double level apartment on the top, and a panel depicting Diana by Militia Pătraşcu by the door. Marcel Janco was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist. , His individual contributions received further praise from his peers and his public: in 1958, he was honored with the Histadrut union's prize.  His work as painter and sculptor has been dedicated special exhibits in Berlin, Essen (Museum Folkwang) and Budapest, while his architecture was presented abroad with exhibitions at the Technical University Munich and Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv.  Throughout the period, Janco was still on demand as a draftsman: in 1934, his depiction of poet Constantin Nissipeanu opened the first print of Nisspeanu's Metamorfoze; in 1936, he published a posthumous portrait of writer Mateiu Caragiale, to illustrate the Perpessicius edition of Caragiale's poems. His theory of set design still mixed Expressionism into Futurism and Constructivism, calling for an actor-based Expressionist theater and a mechanized, movement-based, cinema. Perioada modernă (1830-1945)", "Literatura română și cercetările esoterice", "A New Promised Art" (interview with Fabien Béjean-Lebenson), "Marea arhitectură, între ruine și termopane", "Samsarii imobiliari, moștenitorii dictatorului", "Programul simpozionului international ICARE", "O expoziție revelatoare: Artiști evrei din România", "Cele mai scumpe 10 picturi vândute în România după 1990", "Un Brâncuși necunoscut, scos la vânzare în București", " Un 'misionar al artei noi': Marcel Iancu (I)", " Un 'misionar al artei noi': Marcel Iancu (II)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marcel_Janco&oldid=987604731, Gheorghe Lazăr National College (Bucharest) alumni, Romanian emigrants to Mandatory Palestine, Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro), Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages using infobox artist with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SIKART identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  Orașul, edited by Eliad and writer Cicerone Theodorescu, introduced him as a world-famous architect and "revolutionary", praising the diversity of his contributions. The new nation enlisted his services as planner, and he was assigned to the team of Arieh Sharon, being tasked with designing and preserving the Israeli national parks.  Among the events showcasing Janco's art, some focused exclusively on his rediscovered Holocaust paintings and drawings. Essentially traditional in style, they are also somewhat stylised, recalling the plainness of the English Arts & Crafts or the Czech 'Cubist' style.  His drawings were used in illustrating two volumes of interviews with writers, compiled by Contimporanul sympathizer Felix Aderca, and Costin's only volume of prose, the 1931 Exerciții pentru mâna dreaptă ("Right-handed Exercises").  Janco's paintings still have a measurable impact on the contemporary Israeli avant-garde, which is largely divided between the abstractionism he helped introduce and the neorealistic disciples of Michail Grobman and Avraham Ofek.  Seiwert and Sandqvist both propose that Janco's work had other enduring connections with the visual conventions of Hassidism and the dark tones often favored by 20th-century Jewish art.  His father, Hermann Zui Iancu, was a textile merchant. , It is possible that, during those years, Tzara and Janco first came to hear and be influenced by the absurdist prose of Urmuz, the lonesome civil clerk and amateur writer who would later become the hero of Romanian modernism.  An exception to this self-imposed rule was the motif of "wounded soldiers", which continued to preoccupy him after 1948, and was also thematically linked to the wartime massacres.  He maintained a link between Contimporanul and Der Sturm, which republished his drawings alongside the contributions of various Romanian avant-garde writers and artists. See also Harris Smith, p.6, Manor, p.259; Roskies, p.xi, 289-291, 307. He was the co-inventor of Dadaism and a leading exponent of Constructivism in Eastern Europe. Marcel Janco was born on May 24, 1895 in Bucharest to an upper middle class Jewish family. Marcel Janco (German: [maɐ̯ˈsɛl ˈjaŋko], French: [maʁsɛl ʒɑ̃ko], common rendition of the Romanian name Marcel Hermann Iancu pronounced [marˈt͡ʃel ˈherman ˈjaŋku], last name also Ianco, Janko or Jancu; May 24, 1895 – April 21, 1984) was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist. Learn more about artist insights. [...] it is content with imports, copies, nuances or pure and simple stagnation. Marcel Duchamp the Failed Messiah. , In 1960, Janco's presence in Ein Hod was challenged by the returning Palestinians, who tried to reclaim the land. " Art historian Nissim Gal also concludes: "the pastoral vision of Janco [does not] include any trace of the inhabitants of the former Arab village".  A distinct application of Dada was his own work with masks, seen by Hugo Ball as having generated fascination with their unusual "kinetic power", and useful for performing "larger-than-life characters and passions. Consign with Artsy. ), Pop, "Un 'misionar al artei noi' (II)", p.11, "Scriitorii români și narcoticele (6).  His mask designs were popular beyond Europe, and inspired similar creations by Mexico's Germán Cueto, the "Stridentist" painter-puppeteer. His mother, Rachel née Iuster, was from Moldavia. Researcher Tom Sandqvist presumes that Janco was in effect following his friends' command, as "his own preferences were soon closer to Cézanne and cubist-influenced modes of expression". The existence of disadvantaged, weak, people, of impoverished workers, of beggars, hurt me and, when compared to our family's decent condition, awoke in me a feeling of guilt." Here we offer you expert definitions of Art Deco in addition to engaging articles to help you better understand the unique architecture, design, and culture of the 1920s and 30s. The first clear, though unheralded, expression of Modernism in Romania, was the construction in 1926 of a small apartment building near his earlier houses, also built for his father Herman, with an apartment for Herman, one for Marcel as well as his rooftop studio. At Gheorghe Lazăr High School, he met several students who would become his artistic companions: Tzara (known then as S. Samyro), Vinea (Iovanaki), writers Jacques G. Costin and Poldi Chapier. " According to the painter's own definition: "I was drawing with the thirst of one who is being chased around, desperate to quench it and find his refuge. , Janco was again being referenced as a possible model for new generations of Romanian architects and urban planners.  Although Jules and his family emigrated soon after the visit, Marcel returned to Bucharest and, shortly before Jewish art was officially censored, had his one last exhibit there, together with Milița Petrașcu.  The event featured his production of Oskar Kokoschka's farce Sphinx und Strohmann, for which he was also the stage designer, and which was turned into one of the most notorious among Dada provocations. , In the realm of visual arts, curators Anca Bocăneț and Dana Herbay organized a centennial Marcel Janco exhibit at the Bucharest Museum of Art (MNAR), with additional contributions from writer Magda Cârneci. , Contimporanul followed Janco's Constructivist affiliation.  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