macrocystis life cycle

5.3 Genetic studies South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand), and also along the eastern Pacific coast in the Northern Hemisphere. Estimated southern California kelp areas in hectares (modified from Neushul, 1981a) and annual Macrocystis harvest from California waters in wet metric tons (Pinkas, 1977 through 1976; subsequent figures courtesy of K. Wilson and E. Smith, California fish and Game). Long Beach, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, pp. These statistics suggest that some degree of protection against wave action is very beneficial for increasing area of coverage and stability of kelp beds. Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh, is the subject of intense breeding studies for marine biomass production and conservation of natural resources. Spores are transported away from the parent plant primarily by natural water movements and secondarily by their own swimming activity. London, Academic Press, Vol.1:415-96 2nd ed. The gametophytic phases of the Macrocystis life-cycle are completed in tanks in less than 1 month, whereas growth and maturation of … The lifespan of an entire frond is about six months but may be somewhat longer or shorter, depending on environmental conditions in the surrounding water. During the course of this 15 month study, Neushul and Harger (1.c.) Compensation irradiance for embryonic sporophytes was 2.8 m E/m²/s. Growth rates fell for nitrate concentrations below 1 m g-at/1. Ample evidence now suggests that the genus is monospecific. 9.4 Manure and fertilizer The Macrocystis life cycle (Figure 1A) consists of a dimorphic alternation of generations between a macroscopic diploid sporophyte and microscopic haploid gametophytes. Deterioration in the basal portions of the plants occurred, probably from lack of water motion due to the enclosure. 1985 North submitted, Morphological relationships among fronds of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, off La Jolla, California, Mar.Ecol.(Prog. It is believed, however, that manpower requirement for operation of even large harvesting vessels is modest, amounting to four to six individuals. Biflagellated zoospore production begins after the sporophytes are 6 to 12 months old. Find out more about the company LUMITOS and our team. Isolated plants and those near the edges of kelp beds are more susceptible to colonization by Membranipora (Bernstein and Jung, 1979). The genus Macrocystis occurs naturally around every major land mass in the Southern Hemisphere except for Antarctica (i.e. Tissue contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in young M. pyrifera sporophytes reflected concentrations of the inorganic salts of these elements in the culturing media (P.A. 169-90, Cole, K., 1968 Gametophytic development and fertilization in Macrocystis integrifolia. for Nitrogen in blade tissues. Kelp Investigations Program, Quarterly progress report, July 1 - Sept. 30. Kelps such as laminaria, macrocystis. Consequently, kelp deterioration is greatest in the surface layers while basal portions may survive with little, if any, damage. Srivastava, 1984 Seasonal nitrate physiology of Macrocystis integrifolia Bory. Biomass per unit area is then estimated as the sum of the mean weights of the various size classes of fronds, adjusted for the frequency of occurrence of each size class in the total frond population, multiplied by the density of fronds per unit area. Annu.Rep.KeIp Habitat Improv. The blades account for nearly all the photosynthetic activity of Macrocystis sporophytes in nature). Antheridia on males liberate biflagellated sperm. Adult Macrocystis sporophytes generally display increased numbers of fronds as they age. REFERENCES, By Jackson (personal communication) is developing a computer-based mathematical model of kelp bed photosynthesis and productivity that takes account of the many factors affecting photosynthesis in Macrocyst is. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. [3][1]The stipes are unbranched and each has a gas bladder at its base.[4]. Their scheme depicted two individuals working 12 hr. also show haplo diplontic life cycle. 4.1 Age, weight or Extensive analyses of organic and salt composition of the Pacific coast kelps, including Macrocystis, were reported by Balch and by Turrentine from work in the early 1900's (cf. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, SantaBarbara, 179 p. Wheeler, W.N, 1980 Effect of boundary Layer transport on the fixation of carbon by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Berkeley, California, Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture Report for Agreement No. North. At a physiological level, photosynthetic capacity declines (Gerard, 1984a). Final report. 5.1 Productivity Macrocystis beds are generally harvested only when dense canopies justify such activity, otherwise a bed is left unharvested until an adequate canopy develops. This life cycle assessment (LCA) considered the energy return and environmental impacts of the cultivation and processing of macroalgae (seaweed) to bioethanol and biogas with a particular focus on specific species (Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera) and cultivation methods (bottom planting and long-line cultivation). Loma and Palos Verdes, California, in the 1960's and 1970's respectively (Figures 2 and 3). 199-216, Wilson, K.C., and W.J. IDENTITY Translocation in M. integrifolia differed from that in M. pyrifera in terms of seasonal changes in direction of translocation and in distances from the apices where changes occur (Lobban, 1978b). water motion and nutrients are not growth-limiting). Manley (1981) showed that Fe uptake is light independent and energy dependent. The mass of haptera constitutes the holdfast. Populations of variously sized plants occur where forces of attrition are high so that mortalities occur frequently. Phosphorous is assimilated from the exterior in inorganic form but is primarily incorporated into organic compounds during translocation in the sieve tube sap. (1973) showed that attached algal spores of other species could be dislodged by strong water motion. Wheeler (1978) reported maximum uptake rates by tissue discs cut from blades on an adult frond as 75 m m/cm²/h for NO3, 275 nM/cm²/h for NH4, and 3.8 nM/cm²/h for PO4 under saturating water motion. Gross composition of Macrocystis, combining data from Point Loma and San Clemente Island (Lindner et al. Gametophyte mortalities are probably much greater. Later workers consequently chose holdfast morphology as a basis for species separation (Womersley, 1954). Sargassam sometimes breaks off to form floating masses. Winter storms and warm waters during summer can create seasonal scarcities of plant material available for harvesting. Fish grazing undoubtedly enhances competition from other kelp species on such occasions. Check Answer and Solution for above questio Probably the most damaging grazers in California waters are the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, S. purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus. Herbivorous fishes are not usually sources of significant damage to Macrocystis populations in dense healthy kelp forests because the amounts of plant tissue consumed are small in relation to total productivity. Grazing by crustaceans and gastropods infrequently may cause significant damage to Macrocystis populations. DISTRIBUTION, Thus the ranges of mannitol contents of M. pyrifera fronds increased from 5 to 15% dry wt to 14 to 33% dry wt in a plant transferred for three weeks into a low-nutrient environment (Gerardy 1982b). UTILIZATION The survival of microscopic stages of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera during El Niño has been suggested, yet has never been tested. RESOURCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RESOURCE These blades bear various sori containing sporangia, which release haploid spores, which will grow into microscopic female and male gametophytes. Kelp growth is probably rarely, if ever, limited by availability of micronutrients in surface seawater. The area of kelp in hectares is underscored at the head of the respective list of paired years and tonnages. of the sexual life history of Macrocystis pyrifera in La Jolla, California, is from 12 to 14 months. Different tissue types (i.e. These gametophytes grow mitotically, and produce gametes, sperm and eggs. Zimmerman, R.C., 1983 Seasonal patterns in the productivity of a giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forest: the effect of nutrient availability. These gametophytes, after reaching the appropriate substrata, grow mitoticallyto eventually produce gametes. Results were the first set of regulations covering kelp harvesting activities, enacted July 26, 1917. Neushul, M. and B.W.W. Dean and Deysher (1983) noted a substantial influence from sedimentation on sporophyte production by their gametophyte outplants to the San Onofre kelp beds (in their regression analysis, sedimentation accounted for 11% of the variance observed, temperature 25%, light 10%, nitrogen 0%). The lowermost two to six laminae (called sporophylls [Figure 1A]) at the base of a frond develop reproductive sporangia. Marine life depends in some way on the saltwater that is in the sea (the term marine comes from the Latin mare, meaning sea or ocean).A habitat is an ecological or environmental … Presently, all Macrocystis harvested in California and Baja California is processed for alginate production and the resource is fully utilized. Uptake of NO3 and PO4 was more rapid in light than in darkness or under shaded conditions (W.N. Manley suggested that differences between his results and those of W.N. METHOD In a few months, they … Vertical distribution of blade area is not uniform (Jackson et al., 1985) with 50% or more of the total area occurring near the surface in adult plants displaying full canopies. Presumably due to sediment scouring, water motion in the presence of fine sediment further reduced survival. Ryther and coworkers have shown that approximately parabolic relationships exist between production and density of biomass when aquatic plants and seaweeds are grown under light limiting conditions (i.e. Life cycle The macroscopic sporophyte has many specialized blades growing near the holdfast. To some extent variations in the southern sea level index and appearance of the El Nino current off the west coast of South America are related: a complex of grazer and other phenomena have been implicated.. A large amount of experimental physiological and population work is reviewed. Summer syndrome includes loss of coloration in kelp tissues, lesions in the blades, tissues may become brittle and break easily or they may become soft and slough away, coverage by encrusting animals may increase, bladders become perforated or may simply fill with liquid so that fronds lose buoyancy and sink, apical blades become scarce and roost fronds display terminal blades. 8.1 Management Macrocystis and nereocystis are deep-water kelps. A bed may thus be left uncut for several years. There may also be poorly understood competitive mechanisms. Macrocystis life history, dispersal, recruitment, physiology and broad-scale variability in population and community processes. Kelp is shown as black. Figure 7. Appearance of summer syndrome apparently involves relationships between duration of a period of elevated temperature and the level to which temperature rises. Industrial loans from commercial banking sources presumably have been available and used by kelp harvesting concerns in California. Thus a temperature of 20° may be tolerated for 2 or 3 months while 23°C or more for a month will result in rapid deterioration. Thus it appears that Macrocystis will survive and grow in any of the temperate oceanic waters of our planet. 6.1 Annual operations Hubbs, (eds). Encrustation of kelp by the Bryozoan, Membranipora, enhances blade loss by reducing flexibility and by encouraging fish grazing on the Bryozoan colonies (Dixon et al., 1981; Kirkwood, 1977). The ratio of these two sets of numbers was taken as the concentration factor for each element. Science, Wash., 185:1058-60, Fain, S.R., and S.N. The primary ecological factors affecting success and survival of Macrocystis populations in the United States and Mexico (and probably elsewhere in the world) are water motion, nutrient availability, water temperature, competition, grazing organisms, bottom illumination and sedimentation, more or less in that order of importance. Maximal methane yields were recovered from those kelp samples highest in mannitol. Lehre, Germany, J. Cramer, pp. Various compounds of the complex polysaccharides, alginic acid, serve as stabilizers, thickeners, emulsifiers, water-holders, and film-forming or suspending agents. Rosenthal et al., (1974) monitored tagged adult Macrocystis in a bed off Del Mar, California for 5.7 years and reported that the primary causes of mortality were: storms, entanglement between drifting and attached plants, and kelp harvesting (holdfasts were presumably pulled loose during cutting). 1. In The biology of Giant Kelp beds (Macrocystis) in California, edited by W.J. Keck Engineering Laboratories A fully grown frond may display (Figure 1B) 100 to 200 or more blades. Mar.Biol., 32:331-42. Deysher (1984) found that Macrocystis gametophytes outplanted on rope substrata, survived only 40 to 45 days off San Onofre (as judged by cessation of sporophyte production on the ropes). Two herbivorous fishes in California waters, Girella nigricans and Medialuna californiensis, preferentially feed on youthful kelp tissues such as the apical meristems and the blades of very young sporophytes (Harris et al., 1984). Terre Vie, 2:215-20, Haines, K.C., and P.A. This occurs by means of small tears where the blade meets the stipe, which splits the stipe into two. Urchin predators include lobster, fishes, sea otters, and asteroids (Tegner and Levin, 1983; Dayton et al., 1980; Estes and Palmisano, 1974). Kuwabara (1982) found indications that sea-water from 300 m depths in southern California was somewhat deficient in manganese and cobalt for growth by Macrocystis gametophytes. Photosynthesis in an adult Macrocystis sporophyte is affected by a number of factors, resulting in an extremely complex situation. Vol. The results provide key information for the interpretation of DNA measurements in kelp life cycle stages and prompt further research on the regulation of the cell cycle, metabolic activity, sex determination, and sporophyte development. Two economic analyses of kelp harvesting operations and costs were prepared for marine biomass studies undertaken by the U.S. The cut kelp was loaded onto a barge on the starboard side, while propulsion through the water was supplied from a separate launch. Hydrobiologia, 116/117:259-62, Lobban, C.S., 1978 Translocation of 14C in Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp). Similarly, organic forms of nitrogen are taken up very slowly or not at all by M. pyrifera (P.A. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. Pasadena; California 91125 USA. The typical Macrocystis adult sporophyte (Figure 1A) consists of numerous blade-bearing fronds that arise from a basal branching system of stipes. These sporangia are densely packed in certain areas, called sori, on the sporophyll blade surfaces. Macrocystis laevis Price category (Ref. Accommodation of the flow is accomplished by loss of water in the sink region. The bridge crew's quarters and other necessary spaces are on the bow, forward of the hold. 693-8, Mateus, H., J.M. so mainly algae possess haplodiplontic life cycle. Regenstein, and R.C. The manpower requirement, as stated above appears to be in the range of 200 to 300 ha of kelp bed that can be harvested per man-year using mechanical harvesters as they presently exist. Res., 42:591-604, Biology of the Macrocystis resource in North America, 2. The micronucleus will divide by meiosis; 3 of the 4 resulting nuclei will disintegrate as will the macronucleus. In The effects of waste disposal on. Marine life depends in some way on the saltwater that is in the sea (the term marine comes from the Latin mare, meaning sea or ocean).A habitat is an ecological or environmental … Life Cycle. Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) Agardh, 1820 giant kelp ... Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae. The submarine light field that drives photosynthesis is extremely variable and complex in kelp beds as a consequence of canopy absorption, refraction by ripples and waves, and constant movement by blades resulting in flashing light patterns in the upper part of the water column (Gerard, 1984b). loss of color). The sporophyte has many sporangia located in its blades, which, through meiosis, releases haploid spores, which will grow into female and male gametophytes. 0.02 kg dry/m² for Lemna minor, 0.5 to 1 dry kg/m² for Eichornia crassipes, Ryther et al., 1979) and is affected somewhat by season (Ryther et al., 1977). Figure 2. J.Fish.Res.Board Can, 33(4)Pt2:1015- 23-. The results provide key information for the interpretation of DNA measurements in kelp life cycle stages … Figure 1B. They also noted an interactive effect between water temperature and irradiance. Plan view of Macrocystis harvesting vessel as shown in Figure 4 (from Cameron, 1915). North. One possibility for enhancing Macrocystis productivity would involve development of a strain which would have tolerance for elevated water temperatures and could be cultivated at low latitudes where wintertime reduction in available sunlight is not as pronounced as in California. Disappearances or significant reductions of predators that control urchin numbers permit development of huge urchin populations. The Nitrogen contents of laminae declined steadily during the initial 3 weeks of starvation, then remained constant or rose slightly thereafter. Plant Physiol., 63:1003-9, Scofield, W.L., 1959 History of kelp harvesting in California. 6.2 Manpower productivity Biomass production by plants depends on availability of sunlight and nutrients. Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh, is the subject of intense breeding studies for marine biomass production and conservation of natural resources. North, 1980 Effect of nitrogen supply on nitrogen content and growth rate of juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) sporophytes. The life cycles of diatoms, which are diploid, are also unique. Continued elongation in the stipe plus production of new blades by the apical meristem results (Figure 1B) in elongation of the frond and increase in the numbers of blades. grew gametophytes of M. pyrifera in serial dilutions of open ocean seawater and distilled water. J.Phycol., 18:92-8, Foster, M.S., 1975 Algal succession in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest. 1.3 Morphology and anatomy. The optimum tissue density is different for differing kinds of plants (e.g. Mar. Am.J.Bot., 67:1097-101, North, W.J, 1983 Separating the effects of temperature and nutrients. These populations reproduce all year round and their strategy is to produce high numbers of sporophylls and ensure that most of them (over 90%) become sporogenous. Kelp beds occur in a variety of environments in southern California, so at least some canopy is available somewhere for harvesting at all times of the year. Ryther, J.H., et al., 1979 Biomass production by marine and freshwater plants. OF HARVESTING AND HARVESTING CYCLE, 8. Kelps such as laminaria, macrocystis. Grazing by sea urchins has led to declines and, in some cases, complete disappearances of major kelp areas in California and Baja California during the period 1940 to 1965 (Leighton et al., 1965). J.Mar. 7. assumes that no frond was lost and that all fronds produced were eventually harvested) from five harvests the yields averaged 5.6, 13.9 and 24.8 DAFMT/ha/yr (dry, ash-free metric tons per hectare per year; presumes that one DAFMT =1.786 dry ton = 14.286 wet ton) from the three densities respectively. These blades bear various sori containing sporangia, which release haploid spores, which will grow into microscopic female and male gametophytes. Haines and P.A. Once a suitable surface for germination is found by the … The personnel estimate specified 220 individuals required for harvesting the kelp and 403 shore-based personnel for processing the raw material into the ultimate product (methane gas). Chem-Metall.Eng., 52:97-100. North (1971a) studied Macrocystis mortality by tagging plants and following their disappearances over a few months, computing half-lives by assuming that mortality remained fairly constant (a half-life is the time required for 50% of a tagged population to disappear). In the life cycle of Polysiphonia, and many other red algae, there are separate male and female gametophytes, carposporophytes that develop on the female gametophytes, and separate tetrasporophytes. Fertilizing Macrocystis canopies prior to deterioration might serve to preserve for harvesting much organic material that might otherwise be lost. Contents of N and C can be raised substantially in a few days by addition of nitrogen as nitrate or as ammonium to the medium (North, 1978). Macrocystis and nereocystis are deep-water kelps. M.S. In The effects of waste disposal on kelp communities, edited by W. Bascom. They typically feature a large, rootlike holdfast for attachment to the ocean floor, a stipe (primary stem) for the internal transport of organic material, and long branching stalks with blades that stay afloat by means of pneumatocysts (gas bladders). 4.2 Sporophyte Fronds compensate for greater water depth by increasing internodal distances (lengths of the stipe sections between adjacent pneumatocysts), not by increasing the total blade numbers. Bromine, Rubidium, and Fluorine are not concentrated. The value of this Macrocystis as fodder might be enhanced by fertilizing shortly before harvesting to increase nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the tissues via (cf. Diatom walls, or frustules, are composed of two overlapping parts (the valves). North, 1981 micronutrient uptake by juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh. © 1997-2020 LUMITOS AG, All rights reserved, https://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Macrocystis.html, Your browser is not current. Juvenile recruitment thus is necessary to assure continuation of the population. There are no known methods for controlling diseases of Macrocystis plants. The study thus indicated that the optimal biomass density for Macrocystis lies above 24.3 fronds/m². Calif. The macroscopic sporophyte has many specialized blades growing near the holdfast. The lowermost 2 or 3 blades lack pneumatocysts (bladders) but thereafter all upper blades carry these pyriform flotation devices joining the laminae to the stipe. The oldest blades occur near the base with a gradient extending upwards to the youngest blades at the apex. Annu.Rep.Kelp Habitat Improv.Proj.Calif.Inst.Technol., Pasadena, (1972/3): 57-73. Sometimes nearly all plants will be of similar sizes and ages while in other cases plants of varying ages and sizes occur intermixed. Salinity remains sufficiently constant along open coastlines so that distribution of Macrocystis populations is rarely, if ever, affected in California. Cut ends of the kelp fronds are carried against a conveyor belt just behind the cutting bar. 229-51, Clendenning, K.A., 1963 Photosynthesis and growth in Macrocystis pyrifera. A mature frond thus ultimately consists (Figure 1B) of a basal senescent, a central mature and a terminal youthful region as sections of differing ages. Lauer, and R.J. Rowley, 1984 Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest. Ambient Nitrogen rose during the fourth week and growth rates recovered somewhat. Dept-Agric., (1191):40 p. Brewer, G., 1975 Minor elements in seawater. New York, de Gruyter, pp. Wheeler and Srivastava, 1984). Translocation processes nourish portions of adult plants growing under low illumination near the bottom by photosynthate created in the upper well-lit parts of the water column. Normally, the bottom in such an area would be well seeded with microscopic spores and, thus, gametophytes. 323-40. Annual report for 1982. Ecol., 76:35-50, Wilson, K.C., and R. H. McPeak, 1983 Kelp restoration. Mar.Biol., 78:301-13, Devinny, J.S., and L.A. Volse, 1978 Effects of sediments on the development of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes. The California kelp industry collapsed for about a decade until interests in alginate production and the uses of kelp in animal feeds revived harvesting activities in 1927-28. Physical abrasion from nearby blades of tough species such as Laminaria and Agarum may damage small Macrocystis sporophytes, (R. McPeak, pers. Senile deterioration often occurs among the lowest blades of a mature frond even while new youthful blades are developing in the upper regions. W.N. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. Diagram of the Macrocystis life cycle showing (left side) development of the young diploid sporophyte, increasing frond numbers through production of basal and apical meristematic blades; (.right side) growth habit of an adult diploid sporophyte ca two years old, standing in 10 m of water depth, and liberating haploid zoospores; (below center) development of haploid gametophytes from settled zoospores, proceeding to gametogenesis, and fertilization yielding the zygote and, thence, a diploid embryonic sporophyte. She found that water motion under field conditions exceeds this critical value even inside dense canopies during calm seas. A mechanically driven steel claw or grapnel is used to distribute the cut kelp evenly throughout the hold. M. integrifolia is much smaller, the sporangial thalli growing only to 6 m long; it is found on intertidal rocks or shallow subtidal rocks. Male and female gametophytes can be differentiated after about a week in laboratory cultures by color and shape. Wheeler, W.N., 1978 Ecophysiological studies on the giant kelp, Macrocystis. The remaining haploid nucleus will divide by mitosis producing an individual with two haploid nuclei. ), 26(3):261-70, Jackson, G.A., and C.D. The gametophytes are microscopic. Mar.Biol. Since most of the diseases occur during summer when surface waters are warm and depleted of nutrients, fertilizing might be expected to improve plant healthiness. Keller, and D.A. These … Chicago, Gas Research Institute (GRI-82/0067):86 p + 234 p Appendices. Ser. Growth rates stayed at relatively high levels for two weeks, then declined sharply. Resistance to flow reduces current velocities within the kelp beds and causes deviation of flow around kelp stands (Jackson and Winant, 1983). Fish Bull.Calif.Dep.Fish Game, (139):223-54, North, W.J, 1971 Growth of individual fronds of the mature giant kelp. Paine and Vadas (1969) reported the caloric content of M. pyrifera as 2.85 kcal/g dry wt, or 4.3 kcal/g dry minus ash. OF HARVESTING AND HARVESTING CYCLE He did not include herbivorous fishes in his studies but our field observations suggest that Macrocystis is strongly preferred by Girella and Medialuna. The typical adult Macrocystis is composed of fronds of varying lengths ranging from initials a few cm long to fully mature fronds with 5 to 10 m or more of their length stretching horizontally in the canopy (the longest frond I ever measured was 44.8 m and probably 3 m was missing from the distal end). Time scale frond development illustrated from consecutive observations of one frond of an adult Macrocystis plant standing in a water depth of 20 m off La Jolla California. In The biology of Giant Kelp beds (Macrocystis) in California, edited by W.J. Two methods for alginate manufacture are the Le Gloahec-Herter and Green's cold processes, both described with flow charts by Chapman (1970). 2.4 Nutrition and growth. Holdfasts of M. integrifolia are more or less prostrate with fronds developing from a creeping rhizome with a flattened axis. In Verkhoyansk 3.4% of mountain hares were infected with cysticerá of Taenia macrocystis, of which the final hosts are Felidae. A combination of record storms, warm water and low nutrients associated with an El Nino event in 1983, destroyed more than 90 percent of the kelp canopies in southern California, leading to the poorest annual harvest yield in recent times (see Table 1). This plant can generate several apical meristems on a single frond through production of side branchings along the frond length. Kelp cutting apparatus and conveyor belt arrangement are similar in principle to equipment in present-day usage.

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