However, there are a wide range of bioactive ingredients that can be used for a variety of industries, such as the pharmaceutical industry, industrial food, and the cosmetic industry.. Preliminary environmental studies at the 21Â ha pilot-farm of M. pyrifera, installed in southern Chile (42Â° 29â²27â³S; 73Â° 18â²28â³W) indicated that no benthic modifications were found, even after 3Â years of cultivation (Figure 6.3). Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia crispata, and Mazzaella laminaroides are currently the most valuable species, all collected from natural resources in Chile. Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. She is one of a growing number of ocean farmers engaged in 3D farming, cultivating her crops vertically in straight up-and-down water columns, using no fertilizers, freshwater … E. denticulatum thrives on sandy-corally to rocky substrates in areas constantly exposed to moderate to strong water currents. First, farming seaweed does not require any freshwater, fertiliser or external inputs; there is no need to repurpose or clear land for its production. A hard white substance grows on it - ice-ice disease, caused by higher ocean temperatures and intense sunlight. Now, only about 150 farmers remain. However, for this to happen, we must develop markets, processing systems, production systems, and businesses that will utilize the products from seaweed culture.  In autumn of each year, farmers would throw bamboo branches into shallow, muddy water, where the spores of the seaweed would collect. For example, Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman) Collins & Harvey and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) have been farmed in shallow lagoons for the polysaccharide, carrageenan, using the âoff-bottomâ method where algal thalli, tied to strings stretched between wooden sticks, driven into the sea bottom, are harvested every 2â3Â months. In China, Undaria was not cultured until the early 2000s and they are now producing 1.75 million t; Laminaria increased by over 1 million t from 1995 to 2012; Gracilaria was barely farmed at all in 1995 and in 2012 China produced 1.9 million t; and finally, Porphyra increased from â¼200,000 to over 1.1 million t. In the Philippines, Eucheuma farming increased from around 100,000Â t in 1995 to over 1.1 million t in 2012. Therefore, by comparison with major agricultural commodities produced in the United States, it is expensive, presently, to grow seaweed but not so expensive as to think that with larger-scale development and mechanization it cannot become competitive, especially since some seaweeds have apparent advantages over terrestrial crops.  90% of the farmers are women, and much of it is used by the skincare and cosmetics industry.. The production of biofuel can be one these new markets. It is proposing to create five seaweed farming clusters between Norway and Portugal each producing 15Â millions of tons of wet products for the production of 3200Â million liters of bioethanol. Small quantities of Gigartina canaliculata are harvested in Mexico. Social conflicts and increasing consumer perceptions all play an important role. Seaweed is a kind of algae. There has been considerable discussion as to how seaweeds can be cultivated in the open ocean as a means to regenerate decimated fish populations and contribute to carbon sequestration. The finished product - a bar of seaweed soap. John Forster, Ricardo Radulovich, in Seaweed Sustainability, 2015. However, there are also disadvantages. The Taiwanese experience of mariculture adopts the polyculture system, whereby seaweed cuttings, e.g., Eucheuma and Gracilaria, are stocked in floating and moored cages together with other fish and shellfish stocks. The main food species grown by aquaculture in Japan, China and Korea include Gelidium, Pterocladia, Porphyra, and Laminaria. Several environmental problems can result from seaweed farming. With a global production of 17.3 million metric tons, seaweed aquaculture is second only in volume to the farming of freshwater fish. Under this legal framework only local, naturally occurring species are allowed to be cultivated.  A cheaper variant of this method is called the hibi method — simple ropes stretched between bamboo poles.  Some species of Desmarestia are highly acidic, with vacuoles of sulfuric acid that can cause severe gastrointestinal problems.. ... And unlike all those plants that grow in earth, seaweed doesn't need fertilizer, or freshwater. Its applicability to carrageenan, Historically, the introduction and commercial development of tropical carrageenan, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Second Edition), Kevin Hardouin, ... Nathalie Bourgougnon, in. For example, some criteria for seaweed farming are not very well defined, such as minimum distance from freshwater discharges, and can vary spatially and seasonally, depending on the species being farmed. As of 2020, a number of successful trials have taken place in Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Tasmania.  Species cultured by long-line include those of the genera Saccharina, Undaria, Eucheuma, Kappaphycus, and Gracilaria. It’s known as macroalgae to distinguish it from microalgae, which include smaller organisms such as the cyanobacteria that can cause toxic blooms in ponds and oceans. In the ocean, K. alvarezii is found in the upper part of the sublittoral zone, from just below the low tide line, of reef areas on sandy-corally to rocky substrates where water flow is slow to moderate. , Global production of farmed aquatic plants, overwhelmingly dominated by seaweeds, grew in output volume from 13.5 million tonnes in 1995 to just over 30 million tonnes in 2016. The seaweed grows underwater for 45 days. The many interactions between mariculture and the environment include impacts of: (1) the environment on mariculture; (2) mariculture on the environment; and (3) mariculture on mariculture. Seaweed farming can not only produce food for our growing population, feed for animals, can be used as biofuels, and made into bioplastic and medicine. For example, because some of them are fast-growing, it is often possible to produce multiple crops per year in the same space, while the aquatic environment allows for farming all year round in most latitudes. They use floating cultivation lines anchored to the bottom and are the primary methods used in the villages of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The environment where mariculture farms are located (i.e., climatic, water, sediment, and biological features), the suitability of the environment for the cultured animals and the environmental conditions under which animals and plants are cultured. Wild species of Gigartina and Iridaea from Chile are also being harvested and efforts are being made to find cultivation methods for these. Still, on the West Coast, where rising ocean temperatures and overfishing are wreaking havoc on ecosystems and diminishing natural seaweed stocks, seaweed farming is basically nonexistent. CorderoJr., in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. However, if the scale of cultivation were to be increased further studies should be taken. , Seaweed culture can also be used to capture, absorb, and eventually incorporate excessive nutrients into living tissue. When carrageenan was first discovered in Ireland, it was first found in the red seaweed Chondrus crispus, commonly known as Irish Moss, which can be collected from natural resources in Ireland, Portugal, Spain, France, and the east coast provinces of Canada.  Cultivation is also common in all of southeast Asia, Canada, Great Britain, Spain, and the United States. Fig. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Agar (/ˈeɪɡɑːr/ or /ˈɑːɡər/), or agar-agar, is a jelly-like substance, obtained from red algae. However, awareness is developing regarding the environmental side effects, which may occur as a consequence of large-scale farming, occupying extensive marine areas (e.g. Farming output has escalated dramatically since its introduction in the early 1970's. In the case of the red seaweed G. chilensis, losses in genetic diversity, in natural population processes, have been observed. Much effort has been put into tank culture: cultivating suspended algae in tanks provided with water throughput, nutrient adjustment, etc.33â36 These efforts, primarily exerted in Canada with Chondrus, have largely been abandoned due to unfavorable economics. Aquaculture in the United Kingdom is dominated by salmon farming (mostly in Scotland), then by mussel production with trout being the third most important enterprise. William Lindsey White, Peter Wilson, in Seaweed Sustainability, 2015. These data demonstrate some potential applications of seaweed metabolites obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis and of the prospects for the future. In its most advanced form, it consists of fully controlling the life cycle of the algae. Communities of interest range from commercial producers to owners of farm ponds used for recreational fishing and family food as well as teachers, students, and county Cooperative Extension faculty. Farmed seaweed is used in a number of different industrially produced products, directly as food, and as source materials for things like biofuels. Seaweeds are the basis of a multibillion-dollar economy with an impact on highly diverse sectors, including food, feed, textile, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, chemistry, bioactive compounds, and biotechnological sectors like bioenergy. In Europe, seaweed farming (primarily for Undaria) has developed as an industry in some countries but, unlike Asia, it is not managed by fishersâ organizations. Seaweed is a large variety of algae that grows in both fresh and salt water. Ask, 2001), there remains a clear need for experimental studies in order to validate environmental effects of large-scale seaweed aquaculture systems (Trono, 1990; Zemke-White & Smith, 2006).  When made from seaweed (macroalgae) it can be known as seaweed fuel or seaweed oil. Some seaweeds are edible and can be used in plant fertilizer or medicines. For Eucheuma farming, the use of the monoline system, in which ropes are tied to poles on both ends, has been adopted in Asia. In 2012, only 792,383Â t were harvested, comprising only 4% of all seaweed use.  The idea has received substantial public attention, notably featuring as a key solution covered by Damon Gameau’s documentary 2040 and in the book Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming edited by Paul Hawken. By 1974, the first substantial commercial quantities of farmed cottonii became available, and soon the concept of red seaweed farming took off elsewhere in the Tawi-Tawi province and beyond. , Seaweed farming has had widespread socio-economic impacts in Tanzania, and has become a very important source of resources for women, and is the third biggest contributor of foreign currency to the country. and Kappaphycus spp. Figure 2.1. As seaweed levels decline, they have found a way to increase the value of their work. or freshwater, the potential for large-scale seaweed farming to supplement our future food supplies while easing the burden we now impose on the land seems clear. The financial and economic feasibility and investment, such as the amount invested in proper farm infrastructure, short- versus long-term economic viability of farming operations, and investment and market incentives or disincentives, and the marketability of products. However, excessive levels of human and industrial waste cause serious problems for mollusk culture, such as contamination with pathogens and toxins from dinoflagellates. Though seaweed has seen a rise in popularity, more than 90 percent of the seaweed we eat in this country is imported from Asia. This is largely driven by growth in the seaweed farming activities of Indonesia, China, and the Philippines. Nutrient bioextraction (also called bioharvesting) is the practice of farming and harvesting shellfish and seaweed to remove nitrogen and other nutrients from natural water bodies. Seaweed can grow through the winter, so seaweed farming is a complement to most shellfish farming, which takes place in warmer months. Seedlings are then tied to monofilament lines and strung between mangrove stakes pounded into the substrate. Following a deductive or principle-based approach that establishes primary production from seaweed biosynthesis as a basis of food production, this chapter describes the fundamentals of seaweed farming, harvest and postharvest techniques, ecological and economic considerations, and a perspective on opportunities and challenges. Finally, mariculture development may also have an impact on itself. Ahn, Petrell, & Harrison, 1998; Petrell & Alie, 1996), as also with the case of Chile (Buschmann, Varela, HernÃ¡ndez-GonzÃ¡lez, & Huovinen, 2008). These algae are known as agarophytes, and belong to the Rhodophyta (red algae) phylum. If left unmanaged, such a development could, in the worst case, contribute to large-scale ecosystem changes (e.g.  Following the principles of permaculture, seaweeds and fish can be sustainably harvested while sequestering atmospheric carbon. Red seaweeds are used for the production of carrageenan and agar.  Moreover, nothing on earth sequesters carbon faster than macrocystis pyrifera (also known as giant kelp) which can grow up to 60m in length and as rapidly as 50 cm a day in ideal conditions. Biochemical composition of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency, and biological activities depend on the nature of the macroalgae, the enzyme activity, the experimental conditions and the design process. Sometimes seaweed farmers cut down mangroves to use as stakes for their ropes. After sometime, the Hibi setups were gathered and transported to a 0.9â1.5Â m deep growing area where the spores germinated into sporelings and then into harvestable plants. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches.