dictyota belongs to which algae

By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Surface cells rectangular, sometimes irregular, arranged in longitudinal rows, (10)–25–30 μm wide, (15–)25–60 μm long. In habitat, Hainan Island, Meixia, April 2012. (2004) isolated diterpenes from Bifurcaria bifurcata that inhibited the growth of marine bacteria and fungi. Description: This genus contains several species which are difficult to identify. The tips may be rounded or pointed. In habitat, the upper subtidal zone. Attachment by fibrous holdfast. Sporangia solitary or in groups, spherical, 70–85 μm in diameter. G. Wielgosz-Collin, ... A. Couzinet-Mossion, in Seaweed in Health and Disease Prevention, 2016. Other compounds such as glycolipids, glycerolipids, free fatty acids or chromanols also emerge as potential AF agents. Attachment by stypose discoid holdfast. Growing loosely or tightly attached to intertidal and subtidal rocks, dead corals, mollusks, epiphytic on Amphiroa foliacea, in moderately to strongly exposed areas. Branching irregular, dichotomous, subdichotomous. This mat was partially covered by a red slimy coat of an as yet unknown composition (Úrsula Rehfeld, per. The brown algae include the largest and fastest growing of seaweeds. 2, 3, 4. Higher values of algal biomass are expected where there is nutrient enrichment. Branches near the base 3–4 mm wide, tapering slightly from the base upwards, 0.6–2.5 mm wide. Even though no suppliers for marine algae are present, white fish oil, cod oil, and omega-3 fish oil are currently being marketed in Turkey. 1. Growing on rocks and dead corals in the middle intertidal (tidal pools) to subtidal zones exposed to moderate wave action. Growth in Dictyota dichotoma occurs at each frond tip, where new cells are produced. Attachment by rhizoids descending from the lowest part of the thallus. Lamouroux) Womersley ex Oliveira. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. April 2012. Fucoxanthin is a brown seaweed pigment that is found in most brown algae, giving them a brown or olive-green colour. Upper portion of blades. Cross-section. Seven dolabellane diterpenoids, 298–304 (Ioannou et al., 2012), were obtained from Dilophus spiralis. 3. Surface cells and sporangia. 2. Cross-section at margin of the thallus. Asia (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Philippines). Ganti, Kim, Bhattarai, and Shin (2006) demonstrated the AF activity of fats and phthalic acid derivatives isolated from Sargassum confusum. Muñoz, Culioli, and Kock (2013) published a complete review of linear terpenes isolated from B. bifurcata. The apical portion of the frond is acute and has an entire margin. Growing on rocks and dead corals in the middle to lower intertidal zones at sites exposed to moderate wave action. KEAM 2014: Which of the following groups of algae belongs to class Rhodophyceae? Antheridia are cylindrical, 60 μm long, 20 μm in diameter, on one-celled stalk. Growing on shores with moderate wave action. North, Central, and South America, Atlantic islands, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. Majority of the red algae are marine with greater concentrations found in the warmer areas. Seven sponge species are present, encrusting and boring forms (Chondrilla nucula and Cliona langae) dominating. Kim, Alamsjah, Hamada, Fujita, and Ishibashi (2006) isolated two cyclic diterpenes, dictyolactone and sanadaol, from Dictyota dichotoma, that exhibited activity against three phytoplankton species. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are the two most beneficial omega-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. and Lobophora variegata were the dominant species in the entire studied area. Dictyota is a genus of brown algae; the main compounds isolated from Dictyota in the past have been diterpenes and other non-polar compounds. Surface hairs long, colorless, in tufts. Growing on hard substrate, epiphytic on larger algae and on seagrass leaves, in lower intertidal to subtidal, exposed to moderate wave action. 2. Apices broadly rounded or acute. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000038, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186972000052, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000105, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444513885500059, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128119631000044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124080621000147, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444513885500047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128021477000693, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080453828006523, The coral reefs of the Dominican Republic, Common Marine Algae of Hainan Island (Guidebook), Coral Reef Marine Plants of Hainan Island, Lipids, Fatty Acids, Glycolipids, and Phospholipids, G. Wielgosz-Collin, ... A. Couzinet-Mossion, in, Gosch et al., 2012; McDermid and Stuercke, 2003, Bernardo A.P. In cross-section of the middle portion, thallus 100 μm thick, medulla comprised of four layers of colorless rectangular cells bound on both sides by a single cortical layer of pigmented cells. Fronds of Macrocystis may grow as much as 50 centimetres (20 in) per day, and the stipes can grow 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in a single day. Alternate zonation of narrow (1.5–2 mm) fertile glabrate band (with nonindusiate tetrasporangia) and the wider (2–3 mm) sterile band. Distribution. Scientific Name. Abstract. The plant body of Dictyota is long, dichotomously branched, flattened, and brown in color. inhibited the settlement of larvae from the bryozoan B. neritina (Schmitt, Hay, & Lindquist, 1995, Schmitt, Lindquist, & Hay, 1998). Sea urchin Diadema antillarum was very scarce. Dictyota cervicornis. Antheridial sori are multichambered, 75 × 100 μm, surrounded by paraphyses. com. 2 31 Abstract Although Lobophora belongs to a marine algal family (Dictyotaceae) 32 that produces a large array of secondary metabolites, it has received little attention 33 compared to other genera, such as Dictyota, in terms of natural compounds isolation 34 and characterization. Lightly calcified on the upper surface only. The marine brown algae of the East Aegean Sea and Dardanelles – I. Ectocarpaceae, Pylaiellaceae, Chordariaceae, Elachistaceae and Giraudiaceae. Growing on hard substrate or epiphytic on larger algae, in shallow water of sheltered localities to subtidal. da Gama, ... Renato C. Pereira, in, Blunt, Copp, Munro, Northcote, & Prinsep, 2011, Taniguchi, Shiraishi, Kurata, and Suzuki (1989), Kim, Alamsjah, Hamada, Fujita, and Ishibashi (2006), Barbosa, Fleury, Da Gama, Teixeira, & Pereira, 2007, Katsuoka, Ogura, Etoh, Sakata, and Ina (1990), Hirao, Tara, Kuwano, Tanaka, & Ishibashi, 2012, Lachnit, Fischer, Kunzel, Baines, and Harder (2013), Erturk and Tas, 2011; Taskin et al., 2007; Tuney et al., 2007; Haliki et al., 2005, Natural Products Structural Diversity-II Secondary Metabolites: Sources, Structures and Chemical Biology. Similar results were obtained by Ribeiro et al. Unexpectedly, high values of biomass were found (0.1−1.5 kg/m2 of dry biomass and 0.3−3.1 kg/m2 of wet biomass) in a research survey conducted on the reefs of the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago (at 37 stations distributed along 10 reef profiles, from the back reefs to 20 m deep in April-May 1994). 3. Dictyota (Dictyotales) is the most commonly found brown alga in European Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, methanolic extracts of six marine algae belong to Rhodophyceae (Corallina officinalis), Phaeophyceae (Cystoseira barbata, Dictyota dichotoma,Halopteris filicina, Cladostephus spongiosus f. Thallus consists of creeping axes and erect branches, bushy, 10–15 cm high, pale brown, olive brown to dark brown in color. Sporangia 90–100 μm high, 60–80 μm in diameter, oogonia obovate, to 150 μm high, and to 120 μm in diameter. Lamouroux. Branch tips are forked, acute; one of the forks is shorter and spur-like. Dolabellanes 36–39 from the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma in Cortadura (Cádiz, Spain) exhibited mild activity in in vitro cytotoxicity assays against P-388 mouse lymphoma, A549 human lung carcinoma, HT-29 human colon cancer carcinoma, and MEL-28 human melanoma tumor cell lines.67 Dolabellane 37 exhibited IC50 = 1.2 μg ml−1 against P-388 and A549 tumor cell lines and IC50 = 2.5 μg ml−1 against HT-29 and MEL-28 tumor cell lines.67 Relative stereochemical assignments were made upon analysis of a series of NOE difference spectroscopy experiments. Hairs in tufts, scattered. Compound 297 (Ayyad et al., 2011), isolated from the brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma, also belongs to the dolabellane-type diterpene. Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012. 2008). Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. In transverse section, medullary cells rectangular, 30–50 × 37.5–70 μm; cortical cells square, transversely elongated, 10–17 × 17–45 μm. Interestingly, the higher TL contents were measured in five species belonging to Dictyotales order, namely, Dictyota acutiloba, Dictyota bartayresii, Dictyota dichotoma, D. sandvicensis, and Spatoglossum macrodontum containing between 10% and 20% TL dw (Gosch et al., 2012; McDermid and Stuercke, 2003) and 20% TL dw (Gosch et al., 2012; McDermid and Stuercke, 2003). and Firmicutes bacteria (Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus subtilis). Surface cells arranged in longitudinal rows. 1. Most of the red algae are multicellular. Dictyota was collected from American Samoa on July, 16, 2014. Habit. Bioassay-guided fraction of the brown algae Canistrocarpus cervicornis resulted in the isolation of two dolastanes, 310–311, and a seco-dolastane diterpene, 312 (Bianco et al., 2009), and 310 can inhibit hemolysis as well as fibrinogen or plasma clotting induced by Lachesis muta venom (Moura et al., 2011). A reduced nociception linked to lectin treatment was measured by the von Frey method (da Conceição Rivanor et al., 2014). According to AlgaeBase, there are more than 70 current Dictyota species. [2], Dictyota dominates 70% of the benthos biomass in the Florida Keys reef tract. Othmani et al. DNA sequences unambiguously confirmed that the material belongs to Dictyota cyanoloma. Gelidium amansii is an economically important species of red algae commonly found in shallow cost of many East and Southeast Asian-countries. Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales. They inhabit in both freshwater … Attachment by disc-like stupose holdfast to middle intertidal, upper subtidal rocks, dead corals. Other marine products are usually purchased from abroad. In Cuban reefs an increase in the biomass of algae usually takes place between spring and early summer, followed by a reduction in late summer. Dictyota done clear. Surface hairs arranged in concentric lines. They include multicellular, almost exclusively marine algae, often attaining very large size. and Halimeda spp. In habitat, the upper subtidal zone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou. Growing tightly adhering on dead corals, rocks, artificial substrata, or epiphytic (on Sargassum polycystum, Amphiroa foliacea), intertidal to 2–4 m deep in protected or in moderately exposed to wave-action localities. Habit (in aquarium). Cladophora catenata, Microdyction marinum, Dictyota spp. Hwang, H.-S. Kim, and Y. Lee. Thallus coriaceous, flabelliform, with entire or shallowly split margins when young, senescent thalli split into many narrow segments, yellowish-brown, olive-greenish brown to dark-brown color when dried, with markedly regular concentric zones of reproductive sori on both sides of each narrow line of colorless hairs, 5.3–12 cm high, to 18 cm broad. The apical portion of the frond is acute and has an entire margin. Sporangia spherical, tetrahedrally divided, 65–80 μm diameter, dark brown; solitary or in groups, not surrounded by sterile paraphyses, on dorsal surface of the thallus. Dictyopteris pacifica (Yendo) I.K. Fertile and sterile zones equal in width. Furthermore, 313 and 314 showed potent activity against DNA damage and cytotoxicity against WI-38, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines as well as antioxidant activity using ABTS and erythrocytes hemolysis. These compounds inhibited bacterial attachment with CC50 < 0.38 ng/cm2 for DMSP and <0.1 ng/cm2 and <1.66 ng/cm2 for proline. Common names are listed, if known. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the classification of dictyotaceae. Heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis was reported to have antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing tests while the hot plate test showed no effect in mice (Albuquerque et al., 2013). Sexual and asexual […] One genus in this order is calcareous, Padina, the only calcareous member of this phylum.. Dictyota dominates 70% of the benthos biomass in the Florida Keys reef tract. In transverse section, cells of the upper layer smaller (45–55 μm thick) than that of the lower one (65–70 μm). [3] The successful spread of this alga is due in part to its ability to asexually reproduce from fragments created by "biotic and abiotic disturbances". Branching irregularly dichotomous. These algae live attached to the rocky substrate competing for space with sessile invertebrates, while rhizophytic genera (Rhipocephalus spp., Penicillus spp., Udotea spp. These sulfated polysaccharides presented a significant antinociceptive effect in the writhing, the formalin, and the hot plate tests. Dictyota is a genus of seaweed in the Dictyotaceae family. Outer margins in-rolled. Surface hairs arranged in concentric lines. Branching regularly dichotomous, forking at angles 15–45 degrees. Dictyota guineensis Dictyotaceae Phaeophyceae diterpenes Introduction The algae of the genus Dictyota Lamouroux present diffi culties in the establishment of clear limits of separation between species. Phosphate concentrations were fairly high, and greater than Lapointe's et al. Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Of these, 303 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against six strains of Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 8–16 μg/mL, while 300 only showed moderate activity against strain EMRSA-16 with an MIC value of 8 μg/mL. Sporangial sori scattered over both surfaces. Thallus divided into several blades (that gives palmate view), with round axils. The families Sargassaceae and Dictyotaceae produce two-thirds of all secondary metabolites discovered from brown algae (Blunt, Copp, Munro, Northcote, & Prinsep, 2011). Dictyota spp. Seaweeds belong to a group of plants known as algae. The rhizomes compressed, about 1 mm broad. Thallus distromatic through the whole blade, 100–135 μm thick near the base, 105–110 μm in the middle, and 40–50 μm thick in the upper portion. Some species of the order Ulvales, Amphiroa sp., Dictyopteris delicatula, and cyanobacteria were abundant in polluted areas of the coast of Havana City. We reassessed the taxonomy of dentate Dictyota species formerly attributed to D. ciliolata and D. crenulata. Thalassia testudinum beds with algae of the orders Siphonocladales, Caulerpales, and many species of red algae of the family Rhodomelaceae dominate in reef lagoons. Tetrasporangia obovate, (50–)100–110(–140) μm long and 70–90(–118) μm in diameter, in continuous groups or scattered in concentric lines distal to every hair band on the outer surface. On vertical side of dead coral block. Cryptogamie Algologie 28: 169–190. With this result, it is established that Dictyota pinnatifida belongs to the group of algae producing prenylated germacrenes and xeniane diterpenes. Mean TL content for brown seaweeds calculated using data in all scientific articles reviewed is 3% dw varying from 0.1% in Leathesia marina (Renaud and Luong-Van, 2006) to 20% in D. sandvicensis (McDermid and Stuercke, 2003). Margins entire. It is therefore logical that most of the AF compounds described in the literature are synthesised by these groups. This approach takes into consideration key plant attributes and ecological characteristics, such as the form of the plant, size, plant toughness, photosynthetic ability and growth, grazing resistance etc. Surface cell rectangular, 12–18(–27) μm wide and 24–50(–75) μm long, in regular rows. Tetrasporangial sori without indusium. On the other hand, in a previous phylogenetic study of Dictyota samples using psbA gene, it was found Dictyota pinnatifida belongs to a clade that also contains D. mertensii and D caribaea Hörnig & Schnetter ( Mesquita et al., 2015 ). Surface cells rectangular, 12–20(–30) μm wide, 30–40 μm long, in longitudinal rows. The diverse array of functionalities and stereocenters has made dolabellanes a challenge for synthetic chemists, who have helped to establish the absolute configurations of these natural products.66 Several distinct strategies have been tackled, with macrocyclization as the key reaction.66 Although macroalgal dolabellane diterpenes exhibit a range of pharmacologically relevant activities, no dolabellane metabolite has been pursued so far for further pharmaceutical development. The plant body of Dictyota is long, dichotomously branched, flattened, and brown in color. algae belonging to Rhodophyceae (Corallina officinalis), Phaeophyceae (Cystoseira barbata, D. dichotoma, Halopteris filicina, Cladostephus spongiosusf. March 2012. Central and South America, Atlantic islands, Caribbean islands, western Atlantic, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. Cho (2013) isolated chromanols from Sargassum horneri that inhibit settlement of mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis) with EC50 of 0.11–3.34 μg/mL, spore settlement of Ulva pertusa zoospores (EC50 of 0.01–0.43 μg/mL), and the diatom Navicula annexa (EC50 of 0.008–0.19 μg/mL). Lobophora variegata, Dictyota spp. 3. (2012) with sulfated polysaccharides obtained from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides. (2001) and Maréchal et al. Tetrasporangia oval, 40–60 μm in diameter, 60–110 μm high, densely grouped in sori. com.). The diterpene dictyol C, isolated from a Mediterranean Dictyota, inhibited the growth of biofilm-forming bacteria at a low concentration (EC50 30 mM) (Viano et al., 2009). As one of the most important sources of nonanimal sulfated polysaccharides, marine algae have been used for various ailments. Bernardo A.P. February 2012. In those sites, Halimeda scabra and Dictyota menstrualis were the dominant species (C. Jiménez, per. Thallus small, flabellate, infundibular, with broadly rounded lobes, shortly stipitate, often split into fan-shaped blades with in-curved edges, 5–7(–12) cm high, to 10 cm broad, moderately calcified, yellowish-brown, or whitish-brown, with yellowish-brown fluffs covering the lower portion of the upper surface. In cross-section, cells of the upper layers smaller than those of lower one. In habitat, Hainan Island, Meixia, April 2012. Dictyotales is a large order in the brown algae (class Phaeophyceae). All these reproductive organs borne on the upper surface of thalluses. Dictyota bartayresii. Margalef's species richness index (calculated with dry biomass as sample size) varied between 1.56 and 6.18 (including data from the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago and C. Jiménez's data from the reefs of Juan García, Cantiles and Diego Pérez keys, southwest of Cuba). They are unicellular photosynthetic flagellated algae. Common Name. Along with advertisement and advice from dieticians/practitioners, the consumption of omega-3 has expanded among Turkish customers, with a market of 25 million Euro and with more than 4.5 million of the 100 products containing omega-3 sold in 2012 (Finance, 2013). 2. Average omega-3 consumption in Turkey for 19- to 30-year-old males and females was found to be 1.59 and 1.22 g, respectively; for 31- to 50-year-old males and females it was 1.51 and 1.18 g, respectively; for 51- to 64-year-old males and females it was 1.32 and 1.08 g, respectively; for 65- to 74-year-old males and females it was 1.13 and 0.92 g, respectively; and for males and females older than age 75 years it was 1.07 and 0.83 g, respectively (Ministry of Health, 2014). Generally they form mats of dense to loose packed flat leaves that overgrow the substrate. The following brown algae are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Up to now, 526 species of marine macroalgae of the Divisions Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta have been registered in Cuba (A. M. Suárez per. Values were not higher, perhaps because of the very low water transparency. mainly dwell on sandy bottoms. Another class of meroditerpene and its terpenoid parts isolated from Cystoseira baccata inhibited the growth of two seaweeds and mussel phenoloxidase activity (Mokrini et al. Tetrasporangia to 120 μm in diameter. The giant algae or sea weeds belong to class [Bihar MDAT 1995] A) Human uses: Strap brown seaweed is eaten by people and used as animal feed, medicine for its antibacterial properties. (2003) isolated lobophorolide from Lobophora variegata, a metabolite active against marine fungi. Dictyota belongs to a large order in brown algae (class Phaeophyceae). Functional group classification is helpful in understanding the distribution of algal com… In shallow reefs (less than 5 m deep) and back reefs, Halimeda opuntia, Sargassum spp., Turbinaria spp., Padina spp., and Stypopodium zonale tend to be the commonest species. Hainan Island, the vicinity of Wenchang City, March 2012. Thallus blade-like, flabellate, fan-shaped, 7–10 cm across, light yellowish-brown to dark-brown color at the lower portion of the thallus. In transverse section, blade to 380 μm thick comprised of 10–13 cell layers at the basal portion, 120–250 μm comprised of 5–6 cell layers in the middle portion, and 2–3 cell layers (60–100 μm thick) in the upper portion of the blade. Begum Yurdakok Dikmen, Ayhan Filazi, in Nutraceuticals, 2016. Haploid aplanospores or tetraspores are usually produced on mature sporophytes. Branches strap-shaped, 3–5(–7) mm wide, 85–150(–200) μm thick, terminal branches slightly twisted. Range: Circumtropical Natural Environment: Generally found along rocky shorelines where it attains a 12 inch height having flat Y-shaped blades. In transverse section, the thallus comprised of four cells to 235 μm thick at the basal portion, three cells thick in the middle portion (80–150 μm), and two cells thick in the upper young portion (30–40 μm). The same seaweed produces the AF agent bifurcane. Red algae are common and mainly represented by the genera Galaxaura, Jania and Amphiroa as well as by many species of the order Ceramiales and crustose genera (Peyssonnelia, Litophyllum and Mesophyllum). The Mediterranean H. siliquosa produces meroditerpenes (i.e. The algae of the genus Dictyota Lamouroux present difficulties in the establishment of clear limits of separation between species.In previous studies, our group has indicated that the diterpenes from Dictyota species may play an important role as taxonomic markers (e.g., De-Paula et al., 2001, 2007a, 2008; Freitas et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 1990, 2001). Attachment by single stypose holdfast. The short life cycle (less than 3 months) of Dictyota has three overlapping alternation of generations. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Distribution. (Viano et al., 2009). Seaweeds constitute a vital part of marine ecosystems. Sporangia tetrahedrally divided, in groups, on both surfaces of thalli. 1, 2. They reported significant antinociceptive activity of a sulfated polysaccharide obtained from the green seaweed Caulerpa racemosa following treatment with acetic acid and formalin but not in the hot plate test (Ribeiro et al., 2014). Two of them (D. acutiloba and D. sandvicensis) were collected on O’ahu Island (Hawaii) and the others in Australia. Antheridia (25 × 31 μm) in patches on the ventral surface of the thallus. Surface hairs in tufts, scattered.

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