The senate acclaimed Pertinax as emperor, damned the memory of Commodus, and undid all his ambitious renaming. However, even these favorites were not safe from his fury. Commodus remained with the Danube armies for only a short time before negotiating a peace treaty with the Danubian tribes. Commodus became co-ruler with his … Commodus was also known for fighting exotic animals in the arena, often to the horror and disgust of the Roman people. Essentially you became emperor in that era through being able to … He promptly renamed himself Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, and, throughout his rule from 177 to 192 AD, he became increasingly cruel and sadistic. Commodus received extensive tutoring by a multitude of teachers with a focus on intellectual education. Pertinax succeeded him but only for about three months. The fall of Perennis brought a new spate of executions: Aufidius Victorinus committed suicide. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. The next emperor was Publius Hevlius Pertinax, Rome’s city prefect. The emperor eventually decided to abandon “the reins of the empire” and chose to give “himself up to chariot-racing and licentiousness and performed scarcely any of the duties pertaining to his office.” He appointed a series of his favorites to manage the administration of his empire, each of whom seemed crueler and more incompetent than the last. (MARCUS AURELIUS COMMODUS ANTONINUS).. Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192.He was the son of Marcus Aurelius and Anna Faustina, and was the first among the Roman emperors to enjoy the distinction of being born in the purple.. His reign, 180-193, was the turning-point in the greatness of Rome.Some historians have attempted to exonerate Commodus from the charge of … The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. Upon his ascension, Commodus devalued the Roman currency. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473. Commodus was one of a set of twins that Faustina gave birth to, being the one to survive. Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10. Gibbon p. 107 "*1 Commodus killed a camelopardalis or giraffe ... the most useless of the quadrupeds". Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title Pius. The son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus wants to be seen as the most powerful Roman emperor of all time so he would be worshiped as a god. The following year, Commodus became Aurelius’ co-Emperor, and they reigned together from then until Aurelius’ death in 180. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect Julius Julianus, Commodus' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and his brother-in-law Mamertinus. Marcus Aurelius did not try to oust his son as emperor. The benevolent emperor Claudius who improved Rome with public works was followed by his stepson Nero, who infamously burnt it to the ground. His recorded actions do tend to show a rejection of his father's policies, his father's advisers, and especially his father's austere lifestyle, and an alienation from the surviving members of his family. Commodus in 180 AD. At this point, the prefect Laetus formed a conspiracy with Eclectus to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking Marcia into their confidence. However, his reign was short-lived because of the resentment he created through his reforms. 0 2. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. Unfortunately Pertinax miscalculated when he tried to reign in the Praetorian Guard. His victories were often welcomed by his bested opponents, as bearing scars dealt by the hand of an Emperor was considered a mark of fortitude. One would be the growing in size and power of the Eurasian steppe dwellers like the Huns. The emperor Titus Flavian completed the Colosseum and endeared himself to the public with his generosity only to have his good works undone by his brother Domitian, who was assassinated by his own court. One such notable event was the attempted extermination of the house of the Quinctilii. His assassination in 192 marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Aurelius’ physician, Galen, was tasked with looking after Commodus to ensure that he stayed healthy and well. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. All the months of the year were renamed to correspond exactly with his (now twelve) names: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, and Pius. In March of 161 A.D., Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius died about 4 months shy of a 23-year reign and was succeeded by co-emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.On August 31 st of the same year, Faustina the Younger (wife and maternal cousin of Marcus) gave birth to twins: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (who died about 4 years later) and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. He succeeded Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors . The Roman emperors were the rulers of the Roman Empire dating from the granting of the … “Commodus was a greater curse to the Romans than any pestilence or any crime” and the city had descended into bankruptcy and chaos. [clarification needed] For each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces, straining the Roman economy. Pertinax succeeded him but only for about three months. Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions before the campaign against him could begin. … Lv 7. It seems likely that he was brought up in an atmosphere of Stoic asceticism, which he rejected entirely upon his accession to sole rule. Marcus Aurelius was a student of Stoic philosophy. Er hieß nun Imperator Caesar Mar… , He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen, who treated many of Commodus' common illnesses. Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. Jay. Die ''Terme Taurine'' von Civitavecchia – ein römisches Heilbad. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign. By 192 A.D., the Roman people had had enough. 4 He Didn’t Actually Do Any Of His Duties. The new emperor made a treaty with the German tribe of Marcomanni, his father's enemies. The megalomania of Commodus was not limited to the Colosseum. Whatever its roots, the conspiracy failed and the incident aroused an insane paranoia in Commodus, who began seeing plots and treachery everywhere. Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was extremely proud of his physical prowess. In 182 A.D., Commodus’ sister Lucilla organized an attempt on her brother’s life.  Privately, it was also his custom to kill his opponents during practice matches. "Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius" identified him again with Hercules. And in AD 177, after the revolt of Cassius, Marcus Aurelius made him Augustus and thereby joint emperor. He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. The Senate announced Commodus a ‘public enemy’ and righted the names the conceited emperor had altered after himself. Then, discover the most fascinating facts from the entirety of ancient history. Gibbon claimed that the period of their rule was the happiest period in human existence.The Roman Empire was largely peaceful and well-governed. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). Lucius Aurelius Commodus was born to the philosopher/king and Faustina the Younger at Lanuvium, a city fourteen miles southeast of Rome on August 31, 161 CE. Pescennius Niger mopped up the deserters in Gaul in a military campaign, and a revolt in Brittany was put down by two legions brought over from Britain. Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several years.  Another event—as recorded by the historian Aelius Lampridius—took place at the Roman baths at Terme Taurine, where the emperor had an attendant thrown into an oven after he found his bathwater to be lukewarm. Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, or just Commodus for short, is the main antagonist of the 2000 historic action film Gladiator. The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. Cassius Dio declared that Commodus “was not naturally wicked” but that “his cowardice, made him the slave of his companions.”. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name of the city of Rome and its institutions. He executed the two would-be assassins along with a group of prominent senators who were also allegedly involved while Lucilla was exiled to Capri before also being killed on her brother’s orders a year later. In the spring of 190, Rome was afflicted by a food shortage, for which the praefectus annonae Papirius Dionysius, the official actually in charge of the grain supply, contrived to lay the blame on Cleander. He accompanied his father, Marcus, during the Marcomannic Wars in 172 and on a tour of the Eastern provinces in 176. The era of the ‘Five Good Emperors’ is often seen as the high point of Rome and Roman civilization. Now at the zenith of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices as his private business. He then returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph for the conclusion of the wars on 22 October 180.  As mentioned above, he ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, opponents always submitted to the emperor, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, "History Behind The Game – Ryse: Son of Rome", "Box Set Binge: Roman Empire: Reign of Blood, The Path and Deutschland 83", "Imperial Elements in the Formula of the Roman Emperors during the First Two and a Half Centuries of the Empire", Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, Lucius Fulvius Rusticus Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Tiberius Claudius Marcus Appius Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commodus&oldid=991228974, Roman emperors murdered by the Praetorian Guard, Roman emperors to suffer posthumous denigration or damnatio memoriae, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Salvius and Paternus were executed along with a number of other prominent consulars and senators. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. Anyone who caught the emperor’s attention risked also inadvertently invoking his wrath. The Emperor Commodus (reigned 180-192) liked fighting in the arena like a gladiator. Commodus was a bad emperor, but the time itself was hard. In 177 AD following Cassius’ rebellion, Emperor Aurelius announced Commodus as Augustus and co-emperor. After the death of Commodus, Pertinax became emperor. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. Methuen, 1898. Usapyon is the third mascot for the Yo-kai Watch franchise as well as the mascot for Yo-kai Watch Blasters: Moon Rabbit Crew. His name changed throughout his reign; see changes of name for earlier and later forms. As the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was the first Roman emperor to have been "born in the purple," and thus dynastically selected to be his successor. Pertinax. It seems that the movie took liberties with the truth. Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain and favourite in Cleander, a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. But once Marcus Aurelius died in 180 A.D. (of natural causes, not at his son’s own hand, as depicted in Gladiator), Commodus hastily made peace with the tribes so he could return to Rome “to enjoy the pleasure of the capital with the servile and profligate youths whom Marcus had banished, but who soon regained their station and influence about the emperor.”, Despite his unusual personal tastes, Commodus at first behaved more like a typical spoiled, rich youth than a bloody dictator. At the outset of his reign, Commodus, aged 18, inherited many of his father's senior advisers, notably Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus (the second husband of Commodus' eldest sister Lucilla), his father-in-law Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Titus Fundanius Vitrasius Pollio, and Aufidius Victorinus, who was Prefect of the City of Rome. The economy was generally buoyant, and long-distance trade flourished. Innumerable statues around the empire were set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules, reinforcing the image of him as a demigod, a physical giant, a protector, and a warrior who fought against men and beasts (see "Commodus and Hercules" and "Commodus the Gladiator" below). Commodus defeats his sister's coup but withdraws from governing, allowing others to amass power while he engages in an affair and banishes his wife. On November 27, 176, Aurelius promoted 15-year old Commodus to the rank of Imperator, which some say is a role similar to commander. C 1, 9. 0 2. Heinz, W. (1986). Pompeianus retired from public life. Commodus would “enter the arena in the garb of Mercury and casting aside all his other garments, would begin his exhibition wearing only a tunic and unshod.”, As disgusted as the senators were by the sight of their emperor running around half-naked in the sands of the amphitheater, they were too terrified to do anything but play along. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193: Septimius Severus (Imp. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. On 15 October 184 at the Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus. Dio Cassius 73.10.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, To “accept kinship with Commodus ... the bluntly pragmatic decision was taken to deify the former emperor, thus legitimizing Severus’ seizure of power.” See, Dio Cassius 73.1.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Dio Cassius 73.5.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary. Every illness was treated to ensure he remained strong and hale. He was an elderly senator who was chosen by the senate as emperor. In fact, the rule of Commodus might have gone down as quite unremarkable in the history of Rome were it not for one unfortunate incident. Updated October 06, 2019 Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. 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