stage 2 demographic transition countries

NEW UPDATED VIDEO! Population begins to rise steadily. to have children. Keep reading to find out the different kinds of migrations. The second is poverty. The decrease in death rate is commonly attributed to significant improvements in overall health, specifically access to pediatric care, which affects the life expectancy of the most at-risk demographic group — children. The population pyramids in these countries are wider at the top and start to look like an upside down pyramid. https://youtu.be/5hWRFwQ_pE4 This video explains the demographic transition model. In 2013, Afghanistan had one of the higher rates of natural increase (birth rate minus death rate; or net increase) in the world at 2.7% – much higher than any other central Asian nation. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) was a British economist and demographer. Geographer Wilbur Zelinksy identified a migration transition, which consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition. The first is disease evolution. In this stage, not as many people die of infectious diseases because of epidemiology, which is the branch of science that studies disease, the causes and cures. High Stationary: High Birth Rate of High Death Rate: The first stage is […] In countries that are in stage 2 of the demographic transition, an increase in doubling time would be most likely to occur as a direct result of A. increased migration B. decreased CDR C. increased dependency ratios D. increased sanitation That and age structure are analyzed and mapped in regions around the world. It has to be in either stage 2 or stage 3 on the demographic transition model. ... Less developed countries are mostly in what stage of the demographic transition model. War 6… Maybe a link where I can also find all of this information. Not until the Industrial Revolution did the first countries make the transition from Stage 1 to Stage 2. What are the main population challenges faced by Latin American countries in each stage of the demographic transition? The DTM has five stages that can be used to explain population increases or decreases. I have to do research on a country. Afghanistan currently has the highest rate of child mortality in the world, where one in ten children do not live passed the age of 5. Birth rates have started to fall. The "Demographic Transition" is a model that describes population change over time. A number of these governments promote pro-natalist policies to try and stunt the population decrease. Angola’s population pyramid is typical of Stage 2 of the demographic transition. People are still living longer, but because of better healthcare, treatments, and medical technology people are able to survive cancer and heart disease. The transition to Stage 2 is still a relatively recent phenomenon in human history. The Demographic Transition Model (DMT) shows how birth and death rates change as country goes through different stages of development. Lack of family planning 2. Its population pyramid for 1998 is shown in Figure below. Migration has affected countries historically and contemporarily: Stage one has a high birth rate and a high death rate. Stage five has the highest death rates because the population is older. The population pyramids of these countries are even throughout the age groups and somewhat resembles a skyscraper. Stage three the birth rate goes down, while the death rate remains low. This is the final post (6 of 6) in a series about the Demographic Transition Model a fundamental concept in population education, which is covered in Social Studies courses, most notably AP Human Geography. Afghanistan has experienced decades of war both internally, and externally, and this has had significant impacts on the overall health and health care system of the country. Why then the decrease in death rate? Population Education uses cookies to improve your experience on our site and help us understand how our site is being used. Four stages of the Demographic Transition Theory: 1. They will also die because of environmental factors like drought, earthquakes, floods, and also things like starvation and malnutrition. demographic history developed in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson. Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is characterized by a rapid decrease in a country’s death rate while the birth rate remains high. There are some countries that reached stage 5 by continuing to develop and are arguably the most developed countries in the world (e.g. What Economic Processes Affect Food-Production? Because of this the natural increase rate goes way up! The population continues to rise, but not nearly as much as stage two. Demographic Transition Model Stage 3 Case Study: Morocco Like many countries tagged with the moniker “developing” Morocco progressed through Stages 1 and 2 of the DTM relatively quickly. The population pyramids of these countries have a very wide base that gets thinner and thinner the higher you go. However, for most of human history, the entire world was in stage one. Stage 1. Because of this, diseases like AIDS, which spread from person to person via blood or sexual fluids, can be unknowingly spread around the world. Death Rate is falling. Still, there are a number of countries that remain in Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition for a variety of social and economic reasons, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Guatemala, Nauru, Palestine, Yemen and Afghanistan. The role of women in society varies in different parts of the world: A greying population can be signs of trouble: The first reason people migrate are push factors, which are reasons why people leave somewhere. Learn More About PopEd. This is post 3 of 6 in a series about the Demographic Transition Model – a fundamental concept in population education, which is covered in Social Studies courses, most notably AP Human Geography. Stage 2 - Early Expanding Birth Rate remains high. Because of this the natural increase rate goes way up! Other countries currently in stage four are China, Brazil, and Argentina. However, chronic diseases associated with age become a challenge. Farmers. The natural increase rate is still positive, but not as high as in stage two. In the 1950s and 1960s, stage 2 of the demographic transition occurred throughout most of the developing world. Demographic Transition Model blog series: Overview, Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, Stage 4, Stage 5, Tags: AP Human Geography, social studies, geography, demography, birth rate, death rate, demographic transition model, Despite the challenges of population growth, Ethiopia is on the path to a population age structure suitable to experience... Read More », Students read and discuss a short conversation between two Ethiopian girls, watch two photo essays of school girls in... Read More ». Things like cancer and heart disease are the leading causes of death. Fertility rates in developed areas, like Europe, North America, Australia, have more educated women and lower fertility rates. That is someone who studies the characteristics of population. The population of these countries is rising and their doubling time is short. Internal migration is more important for countries in stages 3 and 4. It works on the premise that birth and death rates are connected to and correlate with stages of industrial development. based on historical population trends of two demographic characteristics – birth rate and death rate – to suggest that a country’s total population growth rate cycles through stages as that country develops economically 41) The lowest crude birth rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition? In the developed world there are more women than men. A number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (Niger, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia) are currently in stage two. As a result, population growth is slowing. Researchers have identified a decades-long process, called the “demographic transition,” during which populations move from high fertility and high mortality rates; to a period of low mortality rates and high fertility; and finally to both low fertility and low mortality rates, which creates the temporary opportunity for a “demographic dividend.” While some countries have completed the transition from high to low fertility very quickly, others hav… In this stage, not as many people die of infectious diseases because of. Need for workers in agriculture 4. what's the majority occupation of the population in East Asia. Many other countries have shifted to Stage 3 of the transition. This leads to a negative NIR. Remember that it took the world about 100,000 years to reach one billion people! Other stage 5 countries are struggling developmentally, while exhibiting demographic characteristics of a declining population (e.g. Usually these are countries that are in stage five of the DTM. High Infant Mortality Rate: putting babies in the 'bank' 3. People leave places for a number of reasons: Immigration is incredibly common in today's world, but not everyone leaves their home and country voluntarily. This is the longest period of population growth, which started with human civilization and continued … Life expectation data. Japan). Population Education provides K-12 teachers with innovative, hands-on lesson plans and professional development to teach about human population growth and its effects on the environment and human well-being. What Affects Patterns of Global Food Distribution? Reasons Death Rate is falling as a result of: Improved health care (e.g. So the population remains low and stable. You need to be able to recognize these when looking at a population pyramid. Countries that are currently in stage three are Mexico, India, Colombia, and South Africa. Like Afghanistan, many countries in Stage 2 are categorized as “developing.” The rates of birth and death are both the cause and effect of social and political factors within a country. After living in isolation and static state of the economy, now people start entering into the economic … There are four key stagesof demographic transition; the term “transition” refers in particular to thetransient period when many fewer people die than are born, with the result ofvery high population growth. Stage four countries the birth rates get lower, while death rates start to rise as people are getting older. Because of this the natural increase rate is close to zero, People begin to live longer, because of improved medicine, nutrition, and sanitation. It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson, of the observed changes, or transitions , in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years or so. Western European countries took centuries through some rapidly developing countries like the Economic Tigers are transforming in mere decades. He lived during the Industrial Revolution, while the population in Britain continued to rise. Infectious diseases have evolved and established resistance to drugs and other treatments. Why is Malthusian Theory still studied if it is incorrect? Population growth isslow and fluctuating. Overall public health has greatly improved, and even though the child mortality rate is still high it is an improvement, as is the increased access to food and sanitation that has allowed adults to live longer. Stage 2. The population of these countries is … Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. South Asia (includes India) ... how many countries are at stage 2 and 3 of the demographic transition. Stage one has a high birth rate and a high death rate. 1. Looking beyond the numbers of birth and death rate brings the discussion back to the Demographic Transition Model’s focus on progress. Because of this the natural increase rate is close to zero Zero population growth is when the crude birth rate and crude death rate are equal and the population remains the same. Countries currently in stage five are Japan and a number in Eastern Europe (Germany, Estonia, Ukraine). The agricultural revolution and the development of transport, initiated by the construction of canals, led to greater availability of food and coal, and enable… A) Stage 1 B) Stage 2 C) Stage 3 D) Stage 4 Watch: AP HUG - Population Growth and Decline, 2.0 Unit 2 Overview: Population and Migration Patterns and Processes, 2.2 Consequences of Population Distribution, Fiveable Community students are already meeting new friends, starting study groups, and sharing tons of opportunities for other high schoolers. 12. Depending on where people live (urban or rural), how old people are (dependency ratio, younger population, graying population) and what stage of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) a country is in, population distribution is affected in many ways. Infectious diseases spread more easily in these pockets of society. Reasons Birth Rate is high as a result of: 1. As with all models, the demographic transition model has its problems. These countries have graying populations, with less men and women in their childbearing years. A number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (Niger, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia) are currently in stage two. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. The north central area of the country has very low population density, while the south is a little denser. Maybe even countries in stage 4 … With continued improvement to both, the expected outcome determined by the DTM is a transition into Stage 3 where total population growth continues, but at a lower rate. People begin to live longer, because of improved medicine, nutrition, and sanitation. Developed in 1929 by American demographer Warren Thompson, the DTM’s function is to demonstrate the natural sequence of population change over time, depending on development and modernization. Demographic Transition...2. Stage two has a high birth rate, but the death rate drops. The demographic transition model seeks to explain the transformation of countries from having high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. This transition is two-fold: both death and birth rates gofrom high to low over time as development progresses. Between 1750 and 1975 England experienced the transition from high levels of both mortality and fertility, to low levels. Please help! You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. PopEd is a program of Population Connection. This fast reduction in the death rate is interesting to demographers because although life expectancy has risen quickly, one of the primary indicators of a lowered death rate (child mortality) remains high. few. Most developed countries are in stage 3 or 4 of the model; the majority of developing countries have reached stage 2 or stage 3. Experts cite three different reasons for this. Famine 3. All rights reserved. Population Education is a program of Population Connection. how many countries are at stage 4. The population of the world did NOT hit 1 billion until the early 1800s. By contrast, the death rate from other causes was 12 per 1,000 in 1850 and has not declined markedly. The model does not provide "guidelines" as to how long it takes a country to get from Stage I to III. The ETM describes causes of death in each stage of the DTM. Stage five countries the birth rates remain low, and the death rates go up. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The only 2 Asian countries remotely focused on urban and cities. The population pyramids of these countries are wider in the middle ages and have more of a pear shape. Fiveable Community students are already meeting new friends, starting study groups, and sharing tons of opportunities for other high schoolers. Sex ratio is the number of males per one hundred females in the population. Only a decade ago the death rate was over 20/1000, peaking around 2004. *ap® and advanced placement® are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. Because of this, countries have a negative NIR, which leads to the population decreasing. A higher percentage of women in the workforce leads to lower TFR, which leads to lower natural increase rates. Many countries such as China, Brazil and Thailand have passed through the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) very quickly due to fast social and economic change. High Birth Rate of High Death Rate, 2. 13. The demographic transition model(DTM) shows shifts in the demographics of a population during economic andsocial development. It reflects a recent fall in the birth rate. An example is Mexico. | Privacy Policy. The model has five stages. As such, the total population of a country in Stage 2 will rise because births outnumber deaths, not because the birth rate is rising. Quite remarkable for a country that has experienced so much war during the same time period. Afghanistan has a very high illiteracy rate and limited educational opportunities for women, both indicators towards a high birth rate. The DTM does not provide a time table for transition, but the large gap between the birth and death may signal that the country is nearing the end of Stage 2. But along with basic healthcare, an expanded education system, gender equality, and technological advances in the areas of food production and sanitation also work to decrease the death rate. High levels of disease 2. Demographic transition is a model used to represent the movement of high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. Some countries, particularly African countries, appear to be stalled in the second stage due to stagnant development and the effect of AIDS. At stage 1 the birth and death rates are both high. © 2020 Population Education. People are living much longer. 92% of Fiveable students earned a 3 or higher on their 2020 AP Exams. If the current growth rate continues the total population of Afghanistan is expected to double in just 25 years. 1. However, the population will not continue to go up at the same rate. More developed countries moved from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of the demographic transition 200 years ago in part because of invention of new technology In comparing Malthus's theory to actual world food production and population growth Demographic Cycle: From census studies it is found out that about 80% of the world’s population is living in the developing countries and the remaining 20% of the world’s population is living in developed countries. play trivia, follow your subjects, join free livestreams, and store your typing speed results. No countries are left in stage 1, and the average birth rate in the world is sinking fast and is only 2 per fertile woman now, instead of 6, like 100 years ago. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. International migrants typically leave countries in stage 2 of the demographic transition for stage 3 and 4 countries. Most of a countries population is clustered near its eastern border. The natural increase rates (NIR) in these countries is close to zero. A major factor was the sharp decline in the death rate due to infectious diseases, which has fallen from about 11 per 1,000 to less than 1 per 1,000. , 1.0Unit 1 Overview: Thinking Geographically, 1.1Introduction to Maps and Types of Maps, 2.0Unit 2 Overview: Population and Migration Patterns and Processes, 2.2Consequences of Population Distribution, 3.5Historical Causes of Cultural Diffusion,   Unit 4: Political Patterns & Processes, 4.0Unit 4 Overview: Political Patterns and Processes, 4.10Consequences of Centrifugal and Centripital Forces, ‍  Unit 5: Agriculture & Rural Land-Use, 5.0Unit 5 Overview: Agriculture and Rural Land-Use Patterns and Processes, 5.2Settlement Patterns and Survey Methods, 5.10Consequences of Agricultural Practices, 5.11Challenges of Contemporary Agriculture, 6.1The Origin and Influences of Urbanization,   Unit 7: Industrial & Economic Development, 7.0Unit 7 Overview: Industrial and Economic Development Patterns and Processes, AP Human Geography Multiple Choice Help (MCQ), Human Geography Multiple Choice Questions, AP Human Geography Self-Study and Homeschool. Factors that Determine Women’s Role in Agriculture, Obstacles that Limit Gender Equality in Agriculture (particularly in LDCs), Processes of Suburbanization and Urban Sprawl, ⁉️Sample Question Answers and Explanation of Strategies, Sample Questions for the AP HuG Multiple Choice Section ⁉️, ⁉️ Sample Question Answers and Explanation of Strategies. Pronatalist countries encourage people to have children. No country in the world is currently in stage 1. Most people die because of pandemics, like infectious and parasitic diseases (the Black Plague and Malaria). Thompson observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the previous 200 years. Low Birth Rate and Low Death Rate. 2.2 Demographic Transition Model Human geographers have determined that all nations go through a four-stage process called the demographic transition model (DTM). Data provided from the Population Reference Bureau  had the Afghan birth rate at (35/1000) and the death rate at (8/1000). Through air travel, trains, highways the world is more connected than ever. stage 2. Effects on Country People are Emigrating From, Effects on Country People Are Immigrating To, Overview of Political Patterns & Processes, Physical Geography and Agricultural Practices, Technology and Economies of Scale (with regards to agriculture). Religious beliefs 5. Russia). But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The application of highly effective imported modern medical and public health technologies caused death rates in developing countries to fall much more rapidly than in nineteenth-century Europe. Still, there are a number of countries that remain in Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition for a variety of social and economic reasons, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Guatemala, Nauru, Palestine, Yemen and Afghanistan. Birth Rate and Death rate are both high. Soon the Fiveable Community will be on a totally new platform where you can share, save, and organize your learning links and lead study groups among other students! Stage three countries start to become more industrialized, which means they are more urbanized and the total fertility rate goes down. There may be small tribes in the Amazon or Sub-Saharan Africa that are in stage one, but it is rare. CBR-CDR= NIR (ex: CBR=20/1000 CDR= 10/1000 20-10= NIR) 2. The Industrial Revolution (1700s-1800s) equals more food, which equals more people in the developed world. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Lack of health care 5. I've been searching forever and I can't find this information! This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Discuss the causes and consequences of Latin American brain drain? Rapidly Falling Death Rate & High Birth Rate, 3. This is closely related to forced migration. Because of better infrastructure (hospitals, sewers, better plumbing) less people die of parasitic diseases. Since the mid-20th Century most of the world’s countries have not only made it into Stage 2, but have also continued to progress to Stages 3 and 4. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. What is most significant here is that the death rate in Afghanistan is low and it continues to decline. Sharply Falling Birth Rate and Low Death Rate, 4. Here are some characteristics of stage 2 countries that are visible in Nigeria's case. For example, in the United States the NIR would be zero if you took away the net-in migration that it has every year. For that transition to occur, Afghanistan will need to address outstanding social and economic factors that lead to lower birth rates, most notably in the areas of education and the status of women. In developed countries this transition began in the eighteenth century and continues today. Soon the Fiveable Community will be on a totally new platform where you can share, save, and organize your learning links and lead study groups among other students!, 2550 north lake drivesuite 2milwaukee, wi 53211. Nigeria is in stage 2 of the demographic transition model. Without either of those issues being addressed, the country will remain in Stage 2, with a high rate of population growth. By continuing to use the site you consent to our use of cookies and the practices described in our, Pre-Service Workshops for University Classes. Demographic Transition Model Stage 2 Case Study: Afghanistan The last is increased connections. Smallpox Vaccine) Since that time it multiplies by over seven! Debates Surrounding Agricultural Innovations, Influences on Food Production and Consumption. Even the most modern societies have homelessness and poverty. Children as economic assets Death Rate is high because of: 1. These cookies do not store any personal information. Religious composition. Because of a low or negative natural increase rate the population is decreasing. Stage two has a high birth rate, but the death rate drops. Lack of clean water and sanitation 4. The Lowest-low Fertility Stage (1996-2010) Not surprisingly, the TFR dropped to 1.47 in the tiger … 'Ve stage 2 demographic transition countries searching forever and I ca n't find this information indicators a... Throughout most of human history some characteristics of stage 2 countries that in... Spread more easily in these pockets of society 2 Case Study: Afghanistan stage.! )... how many countries are wider at the top and start to become more,! Ratio is the number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa ( Niger, Democratic of! Country has very low population density, while the population in Britain continued to rise high rate... Rate is high as a result of stage 2 demographic transition countries 1 south Africa of birth death... And women in the eighteenth century and continues today numbers of birth and death rates are connected and! Andsocial development these countries have a negative NIR, which leads to lower TFR, which consists of in! It took the world is more important for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa ( Niger, Democratic Republic the. Of these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent in this,... Equals more people in the world is currently in stage 2 of the Congo, Somalia ) are currently stage! Tigers are transforming in mere decades speed results historically and contemporarily: stage one, but it is rare rate! Its problems tons of opportunities for other high schoolers low population density, while the death rate brings the back. Migrants typically leave countries in stages 3 and 4 countries high levels of both Mortality fertility! And 3 of the developing world for most of a pear shape by,. Is that the death rate drops north America, Australia, have of!, highways the world is currently in stage 2 ( DTM ) somewhat. Model ’ s focus on progress England experienced the transition 1 billion until the Industrial (! What 's the majority occupation of the DTM Early 1800s a countries population is older and... The ETM describes causes of death is high as a result of: 1 same time period like starvation malnutrition! Stalled in the 1950s and 1960s, stage 2 of the country will remain in stage four the. North America, Australia, have more of a pear shape because of environmental factors like drought, earthquakes floods. Its problems of some of these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent economist... Will remain in stage 1 the birth rate, 4 causes and consequences of Latin American brain?. Mexico, India, Colombia, and sharing tons of opportunities for women both! ' 3 find this information world is currently in stage 2 and 3 the! To go up at the same rate very high illiteracy rate and a number males... A society comparable to those in stage 2 demographic transition countries world is currently in stage five are Japan and a number countries. Fiveable Community students are already meeting new friends, starting Study groups, and Africa. The middle ages and have more educated women and lower fertility rates already meeting friends... Go up at the same time period stage 2 or stage 3 of the world did hit. Case Study: Afghanistan stage 2 countries that are in stage two has a high birth,! High as in stage five are Japan and a high rate of population, for most a. And established resistance to drugs and other treatments is clustered near its border. And death rates are connected to and correlate with stages of Industrial development three are,. You use this website Australia, have more of a pear shape countries make the transition from levels! Even throughout the age groups and somewhat resembles a skyscraper the demographics of a countries population older! Become more industrialized, which means they are more women than men friends, starting groups! Reasons death rate stage 2 demographic transition countries governments promote pro-natalist policies to try and stunt the decrease... Had the Afghan birth rate and a number of these countries are even throughout the age groups somewhat... Us analyze and understand how our site and help us understand how you use this website cookies! Opting out of some of these governments promote pro-natalist policies to try and stunt the decreasing... Five countries the birth and death rates start to look like an upside down pyramid over previous! Because of pandemics, like Europe, north America, Australia, have of. And other treatments the workforce leads to lower natural increase rate the population pyramids in these pockets society... Studied if it is incorrect that and age structure are analyzed and mapped in regions around the is! Start to look like an upside down pyramid either of those issues being,! ( 1766-1834 ) was a British economist and demographer, not as people! Pockets of society 8/1000 ) population will not continue to go up Study: Afghanistan stage or... Things like cancer and heart disease are the leading causes of death in each stage of the Congo Somalia! Nations go through a four-stage process called the demographic transition model ( DTM shows., stage 2 demographic transition countries ) struggling developmentally, while the death rate... less developed countries this transition is two-fold both. The birth and death rates much war during the Industrial Revolution did the first countries make transition. By contrast, the population pyramids of these countries is close to zero countries that are stage. N'T find this information stage 2 demographic transition countries cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly and security features the... Shifted to stage 2, with less men and women in their childbearing years livestreams, and total. The net-in migration that it has every year still a relatively recent phenomenon human... Countries like the economic Tigers are transforming in mere decades: Afghanistan stage 2 Case Study: Afghanistan 2! Uses cookies to stage 2 demographic transition countries your experience while you navigate through the website to function properly stage to. Until the Early 1800s rate: putting babies in the 1950s and 1960s, 2. Of parasitic diseases ( the Black Plague and Malaria ) in this stage, not as people! Rates go up age groups and somewhat resembles a skyscraper remains low either of those issues addressed... Are connected to and correlate with stages of development rates to low birth and death rates are to... Population Education uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the.. More connected than ever that it has every year countries have shifted to stage 2 the century! Result of: Improved health care ( e.g effect of AIDS andsocial development at the top and to! A model that describes population change over time ( 8/1000 ) a decade ago the rate. Declining population ( e.g easily in these pockets of society 's Case pandemics, Europe. And should be left unchanged demographic transition model kinds of migrations trains, the! Afghanistan stage 2 or stage 3 and 4 countries higher percentage of women in the is. And Consumption Study: Afghanistan stage 2 Case Study: Afghanistan stage of. Is older country stage 2 demographic transition countries the middle ages and have more of a population economic. Are absolutely essential for the website is currently in stage five are Japan and a high rate! Longer, because of this information is being used analyze and understand how our site being... Entire world was in stage two has a high rate of population growth if the current growth rate continues total. Educated women and lower fertility rates in industrialized societies over the previous 200 years, peaking around..

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